Translational inhibition due to CHEAP RETIN-A the fact that the path of the excitation occurs Br neuron. recurrent inhibition     Carried intercalary brake cells (Renshaw). Axons of buy nolvadex online canada motor neurons often give collaterals (branches), ending with Renshaw cells. Renshaw cell axons terminate on the body or dendrites of the motor neuron, forming inhibitory synapses. Arousal that occurs in motor neurons travel in a straight path to the skeletal muscle, as well as collaterals to inhibitory neurons, which send impulses to motoneurons and inhibits them. The stronger the motor neuron excitation, the more excited Renshaw cells and the more intense they exert their inhibitory effect, which protects nerve cells from overstimulation. lateral inhibition    
 

BreakingNews 29/3/2014 - On Dim Chukwuemeka Odumegwu-Ojukwu

BreakingNews 29/3/2014 - On Dim Chukwuemeka Odumegwu-Ojukwu

[ Masterweb Reports: Valentine Obienyem reports ] - On the 4th of May, 1996, the Nri Kingdom crowned Dim Chukwuemeka Odumegwu-Ojukwu Ezeigbo. It generated a lot of controversy. I am proud to be one of those that argued that Ojukwu was eminently qualified for such an honour. I wrote in the papers on the development.
 
 
Today, the UNN will honour him with a posthumous Honorary Degree in Law. I wish to re-present my argument in 1996 to show that no honour is enough for that illustrious son of Igbo land.
 
 
On Whether Ojukwu Deserves The Title Of Eze-Igbo
 
 
There is no primary school boy of Igbo origin who does not know that title taking in Igbo land is a step towards the recognition of a person’s achievements. Honour involves the expression of respect, which is due to a person either by virtue of his role on a particular occasion, or by virtue of his status or rank, which is expressed in titles and demonstrated in deference. Hence honour is not only the internalization of the value of society in the individual, but the externalization of his self image in the world.
 
 
In a complex society like Nigeria, individual views may differ, and different groups may have different standards for acknowledging greatness. But the significance of the acts and the granting of dignities are essentially the same: they place the seal of public recognition on reputation that would otherwise stand in doubt and endow them with permanence. Therefore, to value a man is to honour him; and the honour in Igboland often comes through titles.
 
 
Thus by endowing one with a title, his achievements are institutionalized, even as he is indirectly urged to do more. Igbos therefore cultivate, cherish and promote an elitist culture whose parameter is judged by the excellence of one’s achievements and commitment to the upliftment of the people. A lot of things have happened but the urge to excel and to be titled remains the heritage of the Igbo spirit. Unless Igbos continue to respect hard work, they will become misguided progenies of their illustrious ancestors.
 
 
In Igbo land, leadership is not an exclusive preserve of a single family or lineage: leadership is not in blood but is achieved. Igbos know the principle of individualism and keep it. They could only allow persons of proven superior traits to lead them. There are many such people, but Ojukwu stands out.
 
 
In achievements, antecedents and capability, not many of Ojukwu’s critics in Igboland can confidently dream to match him, or exude his charisma! In thinking of the man’s character, Innocent Okafo said: “Ikemba is from all indications a man of proven integrity, man of his people, and voice of Ndigbo as well as the defender of Igbos’ interest in our national life.”1 Chekwas Okorie concurs: “Igbos recognize in Ojukwu the qualities of a hero in war and a great man in peace, a mind imbued with a high sense of justice and pride, and a courage unshaken in the command of armies.”2 What is the secret of Ojukwu’s attraction, of his enormous seductiveness to the Igbos?
 
 
The secret is very much open: Igbos have tested his leadership, and found their interests secured in his hands. If there is one thing on which many Igbos agree, it is that Biafra would have been unthinkable without this one unparalleled Odegwuanyi as Zik used to call him. There could not have been that national dedication to a cause, that fantastic faith in their own strength, which the people displayed under him. He made Biafra the credo of a mass movement, and he, essentially alone, created that mass movement itself. None of his associates, not even those who criticize his taking of the Eze-Igbo title, could show any comparable combination of ideological ability with practical, cool politics, and his exceptional talent to organize the Igbo masses.
 
 
On the day he made his triumphant procession, after his return from exile, through Enugu to Nnewi, it was overwhelming to watch the masses of people who jubilantly greeted him in ecstatic enthusiam. It was as if mass intoxication had overcome more than half of Igbo people along the way wherever Ojukwu came into view. Some had tears in their eyes (tears of joy) because they were deeply moved by what they saw and heard. Igbos must have longed for him, else how shall we explain the eagerness with which they welcomed him. Many Igbos still regard his pardon as the supreme success of Alhaji Shehu Shagari’s Presidency. If after his return, he had promised to bring Igbos back to the mainstream of Nigeria politics, that has always been his goal. Some people feel that he has not quite fulfilled that, but they should be objective enough to judge him vis-à-vis the political situation in the country. Indeed, we have not played real politics that would have made his dream come true. In the end, the ultimate question should be: Has Ojukwu had an opportunity to advance the Igbo course and did not take it? In contemplating this question, Tagbo Oguejiofor was forthright:
 
 
If there is one man that understands the Igbo problem he is the Ikemba Nnewi, Chief Odumegwu-Ojukwu. I have no doubt in my mind that Ojukwu, given the chance Zik had, Igboland would have been the Japan of Africa and the most progressive ethnic group in Nigeria. Apart from being the most popular Igbo man living or dead, his civil war records speak eloquently for him.3
 
 
Is it for nothing that he has, more than any other Igbo man continued to speak out against the marginalization of the Igbos? In 1994, single-handed, he mobilized Igbo elders under the banner of Ndigbo and led them to Aso Rock for talks with the then Head of State, late General Sani Abacha. The delegation was not for any partisan interest, but wholly for the welfare of the Igbos. In his speech, he said that Igbos regretted to observe that their sweat, labour and sacrifices had not been matched with fitting appreciation and reward rather our people, even in very recent times, were victims of unwarranted, unprovoked, and merciless destruction of life and property by fellow Nigerians. This was at the heat of the June 12 crisis. So, if the criteria for being the king of Igbos is: one’s love for the Igbo people, one’s care and concern for Igbos, and one’s selfless service to the Igbo people, Ojukwu deserves the title of Eze-Igbo more than any person. He is among the few Igbo men that have had the rather “odd” record of rejecting a party he could have personally gained from because of his people. “It is difficult,” writes a frank Igbo historian, Ebenezer Achebe, “to distinguish where the Ojukwu in him stops, and the Igbo man in him starts.”4
 
 
In the past, Igbos had followed many people whose idea of politics did not transcend their selfish schemes. Such false, selfish leaders would rather not have Igbos under one single symbol of unity, because it will prevent their continued exploitation of Ndigbo. These are the people who always distract attention by saying that Igbos have no king and need none. They say that the title of Eze-Igbo is useless and non-existent. It is obvious, however, that Igbos need a rallying point, and are visibly enthused to have found one in Ojukwu. Chief Ignatius Ezeigbo speaks briefly but illuminatingly about this development:
 
 
In the north, they are running to take shelter under the Sultan of Sokoto, Alhaji Muhammadu Maccido. In the West, the Yorubas run to the Ooni of Ife, Oba Okunade Sijuade, while the Igbos are usually beclouded by the fact that they are said to be republicans.5



 
 
From the foregoing, the following questions become pertinent: Is the claim that Igbos are republicans an absolute truth to be taken at its face value, and not diluted as metaphor? Does it mean that Igbos are very tolerant, ultra-democratic and highly individualistic? Or does it mean that Igbos have no hereditary government? These questions jostled with each other for answers on 4th of May, 1996.
 
 
On the above date, the Nri town as important to the Igbos as Ile-Ife is to the Yorubas, decided to give Dim Chukwuemeka Odumegwu- Ojukwu the highest symbol of Igbo authority, OFOR NA ALOR, thus honouring him as the Eze-Igbo i.e., the king of Igbos. They did that, having considered the exigencies of the time or as the head Adama, Chief Shedrach Mbanefo assured us, “After having received the requisite spiritual revelations.”6
 
 
As expected, emotions were let loose. Some Igbo elite were more frightened than pleased at what they saw, albeit wrongly, as an ominous interlude in the development of Igbo custom. At once, the sturdy rock on which Ohaneze, the apex Igbo organisation was built began to shake. The entire hullabaloo was due to the limited understanding of the import of the title. Ojukwu relieved their fears by assuring them that “Eze-Igbo has no territorial claims. It is purely a pre-eminence over the spirit of Ndigbo. Eze-Igbo gives no orders. It is an honour. A mark of respect for somebody who is preeminent.”7
 
 
Not satisfied, some Igbo elite detected in this act what they thought was Ojukwu’s move to deify himself. Consequently, they marked him out as a man to be broken at all costs. Some newspapers satirized him in hilarious caricatures: they forgot his genius and mischievously remembered only his faults. Some placed a disclaimer on him to the effect that the title is “Non existent and spurious.”
 
 
Scandal mongers, even as they acknowledged the right of the title to exist insofar as it came from Nri, assued us that the title was actually paid for. They traced the origin of Ojukwu’s genius to the devil, just as some journalists declared that the title of Eze-Igbo was useless and unwarranted. 
 
 
In the midst of these devilries, some skeptics joyfully announced to the world that a palace servant gave the title. This is an orchestrated move to discredit the revered Adama. Some prominent Igbos accussed both Ojukwu and the Adama of so bold a violation of precedent: “Our forefathers had no kings,” they said. They cited the saying: Igbo enwe eze i.e., Igbos have no king, to buttress their argument. Yet the Igbo masses were delighted at the elevation of Ojukwu to an Eze-Igbo. Their dream had come true because they saw him as a foremost Igbo patriot, an Igbo man to the core, who has been given his due. They saw the diatribes of the opposition as the rantings of saboteurs and suggested a worthy punishment to them – banishment from Igbo land. Ugochukwu Onwuegbu echoing those who approve of Ojukwu’s title has this to say:
 
 
Ojukwu is the Dikedioranma of Igbo. He is the brightest and the best of the luminous sons of Igboland. He is the first before the rest. Anybody who tries to detract from his person or his achievements is nothing but a saboteur.8
 
 
Strengthening Ugochukwu’s assertion, Jones Ejikeme notes: “Facts and figures have revealed beyond every doubt that the leadership of the Igbo nation can never be contested until Ojukwu ceases to exist. “All other Igbos,” he said with some hyperbole, “are made of silver; Ojukwu of silver and gold.”9
 
 
Ojukwu listened and heard the views of both the opposition and supporters and was at once happy and angry. His initial reaction was to ignore them. But the alleged reaction of Ohaneze startled him. He felt betrayed. In a fit of anger, he kept muttering “Ohaneze!” repeatedly. Finally he said, “I cannot possibly believe that with what Ohaneze stands for and with their idea of right and wrong, they could have authorized such unworthy excess.”10 He felt very offended but still maintained with confidence that this was a misunderstanding that could be easily resolved. I share Ojukwu’s confidence and look forward to a cheerful resolution of the misunderstanding.
 
 
The fact that Igbos need to speak with one voice was amply demonstrated during the coronation of the Sultan of Sokoto, Alhaji Muhammadu Maccido. Ojukwu led a delegation of almost a hundred Igbo Chiefs. At the Shehu Kangiwa Square, the venue of the coronation, a great concourse of Igbos, including chiefs, commoners, traders, civil servants and urchins followed him. At the end of the coronation, the emotions of the crowd were stirred beyond control. In a frenzy of zeal, they intoned: Eze-Igbo, Eze-Igbo Ojukwu ka anyi ga-eso, ma o na-eje eje ma o na ana ana, Ojukwu ka anyi ga-eso. This when interpreted literally means: “We shall always follow Ojukwu, the king of Igbos, wherever he goes.” What to note here is that Igbos were attracted to Ojukwu as a rallying point at the occasion. He is an Eze-Igbo. For those who maintain that the title does not exist, let them note that it did not exist, but it now exists. It is a move by the Igbos to redefine their essence in the Nigerian society. Even prior to Ojukwu’s coronation, Igbos have always known him as their numero uno, the Adama merely announced an existing truth. Even the Igbo traditional rulers recognize that.
 
 
It will be recalled that the epidemic of happiness that greeted Ojukwu’s return in 1982, infected them too. In a rare show of solidarity, all of them gathered together at Nnewi, Ojukwu’s town, and pronounced him the “ Morning Star of the Igbo Nation.” They followed it up by crowning him Dikedioranma (the hero who is loved by all) of Igboland, a title that in its totality made him in all but name the king of the Igbos (Eze-Igbo). I therefore conclude that the title of Eze-Igbo from Nri, which would make its recipient the primus inter pares in Igboland, has been given to the right person.
 
 
Valentine Obienyem reports from Anambra State
 
 
*Photo Caption – Late Dim Chukwuemeka Odumegwu-Ojukwu