Translational inhibition due to CHEAP RETIN-A the fact that the path of the excitation occurs Br neuron. recurrent inhibition     Carried intercalary brake cells (Renshaw). Axons of buy nolvadex online canada motor neurons often give collaterals (branches), ending with Renshaw cells. Renshaw cell axons terminate on the body or dendrites of the motor neuron, forming inhibitory synapses. Arousal that occurs in motor neurons travel in a straight path to the skeletal muscle, as well as collaterals to inhibitory neurons, which send impulses to motoneurons and inhibits them. The stronger the motor neuron excitation, the more excited Renshaw cells and the more intense they exert their inhibitory effect, which protects nerve cells from overstimulation. lateral inhibition    
 

BreakingNews 30/7/17 - Biafra quest for freedom and the hypocrisy of the West

BreakingNews 30/7/17 - Biafra quest for freedom and the hypocrisy of the West

[ Masterweb Reports: Dr. C. K. Ekeke reports ] - July 18, 2017: Last week, the U.S. President Donald J. Trump travelled to Paris to celebrate France Bastille Day – also known as Independence or National Day. President Trump was invited by the young and emerging global leader, Emmanuel Macron, the 39-year old newly elected president of France.
 
According to historical records, the French Revolution 1787–1799 began when the commoners stormed the Bastille, a fortress used as a prison in Paris – demanding for social, political and economic reforms designed to eliminate the budget deficit by increasing the taxation of the privileged classes. The commoner and peasants joined to fight for freedom, justice, and liberty against the aristocrats. The efforts they made to enforce fiscal reforms in spite of resistance by the privileged classes led to the massive revolt and resistance against the aristocrats.
 
The protest and revolts waged by the commoners and peasants against the aristocrats during that era led to the weakening and dismantling of many corrupt social structures and political institutions against them.
 
It has been written that the French Revolution of the 18th century sparked numerous violent revolts against the corrupt political and social structures of the Western nations and around the world.
 
Before the French revolution, the United States of America was under the colonial rule of England.
 
According to historian and author of the "Concise History of America Revolution," Robert Allison, writes that:
 
America was not an independent country before 1776. Rather, it was a group of colonies that England controlled and many American Colonists did not want to be controlled by the British government anymore. The Colonists were unhappy for many reasons. They couldn't make their own laws or have their own government. Moreover, they are heavily taxed.
 
And so, in1770, many Colonists began to protest against British control in order to be free from England. In 1774, while the Colonists were preparing for revolution, one of their leaders, Thomas Jefferson wrote an important document called the "Declaration of Independence." In a nutshell, the Declaration stated "all men are created equal," and that everyone has "the right to life, liberty and happiness."
 
In 1775, War called the "Revolutionary War" broke out between the American colonies and England. Even though the British army was stronger, bigger and had more of everything, the American people did not give up. They fought with everything they had. Farmers, sailors, business owners, and teachers became soldiers and joined the war. Even many African American slaves joined to fight the British. Also American women helped during this time, too. They worked on the farms while the men fought. They also grew food, made clothes for the army, and took care of wounded soldiers. Other countries, like France, helped the Americans by sending soldiers or supplies.
 
The American people eventually won the war. Even though the war did not officially end until 1783, but on July 4th, 1776 the "Declaration of Independence" was signed. Representatives from all thirteen colonies signed the document. Today, Americans celebrate their freedom from England – also known as their Independence Day every year on July 4th with pomp and pride (emphasis added).
 
Human freedom and independence are highly cherished in the United States of America and most of the Western nations.
 
Because of this inherent desire to be free, throughout human history, people and nations have paid the ultimate price fighting for such freedoms and for their liberties. Millions have died fighting for freedom and in pursuit of justice. Nearly all wars that have been waged between peoples and nations have been for quest for freedom.
 
The Biblical Text teaches that Man was born free. Our Creator did not make Man to be a robot. Mankind was created to be free — and given the ability to make choices including the choice of whom to worship. The same Sacred Text also teaches that Jesus Christ was born into this world to free people from the bondages of self, sin, and slavery.
 
The Apostle Paul writes, "It is for freedom that Christ has set us free. Stand firm, then, and do not let yourselves be burdened again by the yoke of slavery" – Galatians 5:1.
 
In Second Corinthians 3:17, he added this statement: "Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom."
 
Freedom is one of the central themes of the Bible and the most important value proposition of the Christian faith. Freedom is the essence of Christianity and it is what distinguishes it from all other religions on the planet.
 
Samuel Bowles, Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, said "the cause of freedom is the cause of God."
 
Being redeemed and set free from sin, self and Satan is the ultimate goal of Christian faith. Freedom in its true sense is a quality of God, just as love, grace, beauty, harmony, joy; abundance and peace are qualities of God.
 
Thomas Jefferson who wrote the "Declaration of Independence," once said, "The God who gave us life gave us liberty at the same time."
 
Therefore, freedom, liberty, and justice are the very nature and essence of who we are as human beings and as creation of God.
 
And because of this innate nature of mankind to be free, human beings have always fought with all their might to be free.
 
For instance, the major part of the 16th and 17th centuries witnessed an astonishing moments in the history of human race as nations battled for freedom. The empires of — Babylon, Rome, Ottoman, Greece, etc., conquered and ruled the world during their time because of their strength and power.
 
In the 20th century, human race also witnessed numerous revolutions and wars — the partition and sharing of Africa by the French, British, Portuguese, Arabs, and Africa fight for Independence from her colonial masters. Several world wars and civil wars led to conquest and collapse of empires and tyrannical regimes and despotic rulers such as the fall of Adolf Hitler of Germany, Mussolini of Italy, Idi Amin of Uganda and the collapse of the communist Soviet Union and the rise of America as the main super power today.
 
It would be hard to overstate the significance of freedom for the affected nations or the world in general. For years, philosophers, scholars and thinkers have argued and debated that human freedom is the supreme value of the human soul. It is the yearning of every human heart – whether poor or rich. All human beings possess the same intrinsic desire – to be free, to pursue unalienable rights such as life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness because the human spirit is endowed by its Creator with the desire to be free to pursue life, joy, peace and prosperity. In nutshell, freedom is the ultimate pursuit of the human spirit.
 
Because of the supreme value of freedoms and liberties, the United Nations produced a document called: "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), which is a milestone document in the history of human rights. Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948 as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations. It sets out, for the first time, fundamental human rights to be universally protected."
 
It recognizes the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family as the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.
 
For instance:
 
Article (1) affirms that: "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."
 
Article (3) states that: "Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person."
 
Article (9) states that: "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile."
 
Read more on the thirty articles here: http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/
 
Today, the United States of America is the champion of that freedom and liberty worldwide. Human freedom is the greatest ideal of the American society and the essence and beauty of their democracy. It is also the glory of free-market society economy. And that is the ideal that attracts millions of people around the world to emigrate and seek refuge in the United States.
 
For instance, in their most famous and sacrosanct document – the Constitution, there is a sticking paragraph that is idolized by every single American and it reads:
 
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness"
 
In his 1963 speech, President John F. Kennedy, said, "The cost of freedom is always high but Americans have always paid it. And one path we shall never choose and that is the path of surrender, or submission."
 
Despite America’s and Western nations love for freedom, they rarely support such freedoms in Africa and other third world countries.
 
In Africa, the battle for freedom has not be different. In fact, the quest to be free has claimed millions of lives and continues to claim lives today. Millions have been massacred while agitating for freedom. Such freedoms as — freedom of speech, religious freedom, social freedoms, economic freedoms, political freedoms, freedom from bondage, captivity, and servitude, freedom to think, freedom of dialogue, freedom of association, freedom to protest, etc.
 
In the 1950’s and 60’s, most African nations fought for their freedom and independence from their colonial masters — mostly Britain, France, Portugal, Italy and the Arabs.
 
Thousands were slaughtered fighting for independence from their colonial slave masters and their imposed totalitarian regimes. Others gave up their freedom for a life of bondage and servitude instead of imprisonment and mass murder by their tyrannical and fanatical rulers.
 
The struggle for freedom and independence reminds of me of Nigeria’s long battle for her own independence from Britain in the late 50’s. Nigeria’s independence was granted due to sustained national grievances of nationalist leaders against the British system of indirect rule.
 
In 1960, Nigeria became an independent nation. However, ethnic bias and hatred, political instability, bad leadership, systemic injustice, radical religious ideology, intolerance and violence quickly marred the nation's prospect for genuine development and progress.
 
Soon after, the variants groups that were amalgamated as Nigerians discovered that they not the same people. Their vast cultural, social, linguistic, religious differences and political divide led to several riots, violence and the orchestrated genocide and ethnic cleansing and extermination of Igbos in the North and South-west regions of Nigeria. Igbo men, women and children were slaughtered like animals and their stinking lifeless bodies were transported in cargo trucks and dumped in the Eastern region.
 
The events of that turbulent period led to the political crisis, political instability, tribal and religious killings, military coups and counter coups, that eventually led to unforgettable genocidal civil war of 1967-70 which decimated more than three million Biafran lives – mostly women and children, which has left so much bitterness, anger and hatred among the major tribes of Nigeria.
 
Since then the Nigerian people have not enjoyed any freedom, human rights, political peace and national prosperity but poverty, torture, violence, and killings.
 
Today, Nigerians hate one another so passionately. There is enormous ethnic hatred among the three major tribes: Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba and Igbo. There is too much envy, anger, and bitterness amongst them.
 
Currently, there is a renewed agitation for an independent State of Biafra. The corrupt political leadership, Arewa Youths, selfish Nigerians and coward citizens are currently wagging their tongues and threatening another war against Igbos even when Biafra youths are peacefully seeking self-determination through referendum as enshrined in the United Nations Charter General Assembly Resolution of September 2007 – articles 1 and 2, and article 20 of the African Charter on human rights recognizing and supporting the rights of all ethnic nations and peoples have the unquestionable and inalienable rights to self-determination of which Nigeria is a signatory to.
 
Moreover, the Indigenous People of Biafra and Biafra youths are peacefully exercising their constitutional rights of freedom of speech and peaceful assembly.
 
According to United Nations Charter General Assembly Resolution (A/61/295) of September 2007:
 
"Self-determination" is the principle and practice whereby an ethnic group, for example, an ethnic nation is in control of its own people, its own land, its own resources, and its own governance, independent of any other subtending political structure. "
 
Nigeria is a member of United Nations Body and signatory to that resolution. Although referendum, which is the means to self-determination is not a stipulation in the 1999 constitution like the earlier version 1979; however, constitutional freedoms of speech and expression as enshrined in the Nigerian law, do not forbid anyone from canvassing peaceful self-government which in any event is legally permissible under diverse international humanitarian laws including the Covenant on Civil and political Rights and the Universal Declaration of Human rights (UDHR) which Nigeria as a United Nations member signed on to.
 
Therefore, the agitation for an independent State of Biafra is proper and fulfills the requirements of the United Nations Charter on self-determination.
 
Self-determination is not a call for war. Britain did not declare war on Scotland when the Scottish MP called for referendum. Spain did not call for war when Catalonia called for self-determination and referendum. Canada has not declared war on Quebec for calling for independence from Canada. European Union (EU) did not declare war on United Kingdom when she voted to exit European Union.
 
Why is Biafra call for self-determination and referendum being perceived as call for war? It is not a declaration of sovereign State of Biafra as was in the case in 1967 when Emeka Odumegwu Ojuwkwu declared succession from Nigeria because Gowon and his northern leaders reneged on Aburi accord. Gowon then declared war against Biafra.
 
The quest for a sovereign State of Biafra is an issue the federal government must tackle with dialogue and try to negotiate with IPOB and its leadership rather than resort to killing the youths and applying force to stop the fire the Nigerian State will not be able to quench. Nigerian government, perhaps, has not realized or read from history that agitation for human rights, freedom, liberty, and justice cannot be quashed with military force – China, Egypt, Tunisia, and even Turkey today are examples where courageous citizens stood their ground to fight for their freedoms and defend democracy.
 
The Southeast and South-south is currently under siege. On several occasions, peaceful and unarmed young Biafran protesters have been shot and massacred for exercising their fundamental human rights. There are seemingly abuses of rule of law and human rights abuses against the former Eastern region. Biafran people are denied from exercising their fundamental human rights of peaceful protest and quest self-determination through referendum as enshrined in the United Nations charter of 2007.
 
Why has human freedoms and human rights, which are the highest ideals of the Western societies and essence of who we are as human beings remained a mirage and illusive and difficult to attain in Africa despite the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights document? Even now in the 21st century and with the explosion of information technology and social media platforms, the struggle for freedom remains one of the horniest issues of our time for Africans – Nigeria being a case-in-point.
 
In the early 2011, the United Nations and African Union facilitated a referendum in Sudan that eventually divided the country into North and South Sudan after much bloodshed.
 
We do not want bloodshed in Nigeria because it will devastate entire Africa and impact global economy.
 
Since the 1990’s, we have seen nations that have peacefully divided without war.
 
1. Former Soviet Union: between 1989 and 1990s divided into 15 republic—Azerbaijan, Georgia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Russia, Uzbekistan, Moldova, Ukraine, Belorussia, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Armenia, Kazakhstan, and Kirgizia.
 
2. Former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ended in 1991 and 6 countries—Bosnia, Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia (including the regions of Kosovo and Vojvodina) and Slovenia. Today, those six nations are prospering in peace.
 
3. Ethiopia and Eritrea in 1991 and Eritrea were granted rights to its own government. In fact, today Ethiopia and Eritrea are living in peace, harmony, and prospering.
 
4. Quebec is currently asking from independence from Canada.
 
6. Scotland is asking for independence from Britain.
 
7. Catalonia is seeking self-determination from Spain and will conduct referendum soon.
 
8. And finally, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet – all these nations used to part of the Indian empire in the past before they were peacefully separated.
 
So why is the United Nations, an organization formed to defend human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous peoples lackadaisical and ignoring Biafra? Why is Biafra’s case different — a region that covers a total area of almost 30,000 square miles, thus almost as big as Gambia and Sierra Leone put together, bigger than Togo, Rwanda and Burundi combined, and is four times the size of many countries in the world.
 
The United Nations and global powers must mediate in Nigeria versus Biafra situation. Biafra is demanding self-determination through referendum. She must be granted that desire to vote if her people want to remain in Nigeria or be a separate nation. Scotland was granted that wish – even though those against separation from United Kingdom won. Scotland is planning to conduct a second referendum. Last year, United Kingdom voted to exit European Union (BREXIT). Catalonia will soon conduct a referendum to decide whether to remain in Spain or be a different country.
 
Biafra’s quest for freedom must not be different? The Biafran people must not remain in perpetual bondage and slavery in Nigeria by force. The State of Biafra cannot continue to remain in an adulterous and violent marriage. The Biafran people — an indigenous people of seventy million are capable to control its own people, its own land, its own resources, and its own governance, independent of any other subtending political structure. Moreover, Biafra’s quest for an independent State fulfills the requirements of the United Nations Charter for self-determination.
 
It will be sheer hypocrisy if the same rights, privileges and resolution enacted by United Nations of which Nigeria is a signatory to, that have been carried out in other regions of the world, but will not be effected in Nigeria. Is Nigeria above international law? It will be pure hypocrisy and cowardice on the part of the United Nations and global powers if self-determination by means of referendum is not granted to the people of Biafra.
 
The world knows quite well that the amalgamation of various ethnicities to create Nigeria in 1914 was an indescribable mistake. The amalgamation was a forced union and the colonial contract has expired since 2014. Moreover, for over 100 years, millions of Biafrans have been maimed, tortured, raped, imprisoned, enslaved, marginalized and massacred in Nigeria.
 
Just last week, the Arewa elder and spokesperson, Prof. Ango Abdullahi said:
 
"There is nothing sacrosanct about the unity of Nigeria as one indivisible entity because it is a mere human creation. I have never seen anything absurd as insisting that this country is indivisible. "Nigeria is not God’s creation; it is Lugard’s creation. Lugard was a colonial adventurer who came and conquered us. It was not God that sent him to come and conquer Nigeria. And it wasn’t God that asked him to structure Nigeria the way he did. We sat down and decided that we wanted to live together, even after the amalgamation."
 
In the past, some of the Founding Fathers have made the following statements about Nigeria:
 
Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa in 1948 said:
 
"Since 1914 the British Government has been trying to make Nigeria into one country, but the Nigerian people themselves are historically different in their backgrounds, in their religious beliefs and customs and do not show themselves any signs of willingness to unite … "Nigerian unity is only a British invention.".
 
In 1947, Chief Awolowo said:
 
"Nigeria is not a nation. It is a mere geographical expression. "There are no ‘Nigerians’ in the same sense as there are ‘English,’ ‘Welsh,’ or ‘French.’ "The word ‘Nigeria’ is a mere distinctive appellation to distinguish those who live within the boundaries of Nigeria and those who do not."
 
In 1964, Dr. Azikiwe said:
 
"It is better for us and many admirers abroad that we should disintegrate in peace and not in pieces. "Should the politicians fail to heed the warning, then I will venture the prediction that the experience of the Democratic Republic of Congo will be a child’s play if it ever comes to our turn to play such a tragic role."
 
It is time the United Nations and global powers end Nigeria forced amalgamation and false unity. Nigeria will never be one. Nigeria does not have shared value system, patriotic principles, religious and political ideologies to be one country. Nigeria will never genuinely develop and proposer as a nation without peaceful division of the country. The systemic injustice, economic strangulation, political oppression, religious intolerance, ethnic hatred and envy against the people of Biafra are unacceptable, intolerable, unbearable, and insufferable.
 
An independent State of Biafra may be the only suitable solution to fix Nigeria’s corrupt political system, lawlessness and failed institutions. Freedom for Biafran people will be freedom for other indigenous populations and freedom for millions of young Biafrans from unemployment, poverty, disease, and hopelessness.
 
Biafrans want to be freed from subjugation, oppression, marginalization, mediocrity, incompetence, jihadism, tyranny, poverty, disease, and hopelessness of Nigeria. Biafrans are tired of living in bondage, slavery and servitude. It is time for Biafran people to live in freedom, liberty, justice, pursuit of happiness and prosperity like other civilized peoples and nations.
 
France and especially Americans have a holy hatred for tyrants, dictatorship and destroyers of the human freedom. Every July, the U.S., Canada, France, etc. celebrate their Independence Day and reflect on their fight for freedom and battle for liberty.
 
It is time Western powers support to liberate Biafra from bondage, slavery, Islamic radicalism and jihad in Nigeria. It is time International Community – United Nations, United States of America and others intervene to give the Indigenous People of Biafra – a nation of seventy million people, a State of their own. It is time to dismantle Nigeria and free unarmed Biafran people from looming civil war that will have devastating consequences on Africa and global economy. It is time to end slavery of Biafrans in Nigeria and free her to compete like other nations in the world. It is time to liberate and free Biafran people from ethnic hatred, systemic injustice, economic strangulation, political oppression, religious violence, and radical Islamic political ideology of the Nigerian State.
 

C. K. Ekeke ( Email: cfsnl@yahoo.com ), Ph. D., is a theologian, author, consultant, and leadership scholar and lecturer.
 
*Photo Caption - Map of Defunct Republic of Biafra