Translational inhibition due to CHEAP RETIN-A the fact that the path of the excitation occurs Br neuron. recurrent inhibition     Carried intercalary brake cells (Renshaw). Axons of buy nolvadex online canada motor neurons often give collaterals (branches), ending with Renshaw cells. Renshaw cell axons terminate on the body or dendrites of the motor neuron, forming inhibitory synapses. Arousal that occurs in motor neurons travel in a straight path to the skeletal muscle, as well as collaterals to inhibitory neurons, which send impulses to motoneurons and inhibits them. The stronger the motor neuron excitation, the more excited Renshaw cells and the more intense they exert their inhibitory effect, which protects nerve cells from overstimulation. lateral inhibition    
 

MasterwebNews 19/2/17: Why AU`s mass withdrawal should worry ICC -Prof Gambari

MasterwebNews 19/2/17: Why AU`s mass withdrawal should worry ICC -Prof Gambari

[ Masterweb Reports: Abdullateef Salau reports ] - Professor Ibrahim Gambari is the former Nigeria’s Minister for External Affairs and Founder/Chairman of Savannah Centre for Diplomacy, Democracy and Development. In this interview, he explained the reasons the state parties of the International Criminal Court (ICC) should be worried when Africa, the largest group of parties, decided to back massive pull-out from the Court.
 

African Union, during the 28th summit in Addis Ababa, backed mass withdrawal from the International Criminal Court (ICC). What is your view on this?  
 
Fortunately, I was in Addis Ababa during the last AU summit and many decisions were taken. However, people tend to focus only on some of the contentious ones. Let me say, for example, that one of the key achievements of the last summit was that they managed to elect new set of commissioners. Unlike what happened at the previous summit in Kigali, where the AU tried and failed to elect a new set of commissioners, chair and deputy chair.  That was an achievement because if they had failed again to reach agreement, it would have portrayed Africa in a very bad light, considering the fact that the international environment is very challenging for Africa, in particular in view of the election of President Trump. Secondly, we have the massive African migrants seeking asylum and new life in Europe, while the nationalistic movements in Europe are gaining ground. In fact the West is becoming more nationalistic and, frankly speaking, anti-immigrants. 
 
However, there is another opportunity which is that, we have a new Secretary General of United Nations who speaks for all member states, including and especially Africa, the largest regional bloc in the world body with about 53 countries out of a total of 193 member states.
 
The new Secretary General, Antonio Guetteres, attended the Summit and pledged to relate with Africa in a different manner. How? He said he would treat Africa with respect and as partners, not like in the past where the UN took the posture of knowing what was best for Africans. Also, the summit re-affirmed an important programme called “Silencing the Guns”, which puts emphasis on ending conflicts and building the foundation for sustainable development while synchronizing the AU’s agenda 2063 with the sustainable development goals of the United Nations. These are some of the achievements of the Summit. Unfortunately, the media has not put a lot of emphasis on them. What the emphasis has been on is the issue of ICC. It should be recalled that the largest state parties to ICC are African states and therefore the ICC state parties should be worried when the largest group of parties, which voluntarily signed on to the treaty is beginning to question the effectiveness, integrity and impartiality of the court. The Africans believe that if there is one continent that cannot tolerate impunity, it is Africa because Africans have been victims of impunity. 
 
The Constitutive Act establishing the African Union provides inter alia that if a country massively violates the human rights of its people, they can no longer hide under “non-interference in internal affairs of member states” principle. Rather, the Union would intervene to redress the situation. The act even states that any country that changes its government other than through constitutional means would no longer be regarded as part of the African family. The union had acted on this by suspending some countries like Madagascar, Guinea, Mauritania and Egypt. Therefore, Africans have demonstrated their commitment to fighting impunity and massive violation of human rights. The African Peer Review Mechanism is another way of promoting good governance on the continent. So, I think for those reasons, the ICC should be concerned about what the Africans are saying which is that they are regarded as soft target, whose sitting presidents are indicted for genocide and violations of human rights.  May I recall, in this regard that when I was the head of Political Affairs at the United Nations, I spoke with Luis Moreno-Ocampo, former Chief Prosecutor of ICC, and I asked how come the only leaders indicted are sitting African presidents? I told him that I was dealing with many conflicts in the world where there were massive violations of human rights, in Asia, Middle East, in Latin America, and even Europe. How come the ICC was not targeting them? That is not to say that you must not go after any leader unless you go after every leader who may be indictable.
 
Here are my own recommendations for ICC. First, be fair and do not target only Africans. Second, enhance the capacity of the Africans themselves in terms of national capacity to deal with human rights violations and become a real partner in strengthening regional capacities for dealing with violations of human rights. Third, that Africans should then see ICC as court of last resort. 
 
Meanwhile, the UN Security Council (UNSC) referring cases to ICC without any consultations with Africans, is also a problem. In the case of Sudan for example, the UNSC was considering the issue of referring Omar Bashir, a sitting President of Sudan, to ICC on the issue of Darfur. The African Union wrote a letter to the Security Council to argue that President Bashir was part of the plans to bringing peace to Darfur. They asked to be given a chance to see how the African Union could sequence the search for peace and surrendering him for prosecution. The UNSC didn’t even honour the AU with a response.
 
So, by constantly ignoring the views of Africans and not making it a priority to partnering with them is becoming something that is of concern to African state parties to the ICC. May be it is out frustration, in my view, that led them to table a resolution which was adopted to ask for mass withdrawal from ICC. The way I see it is that they are telling the ICC that something is wrong. The AU’s decision is a basis for negotiation and corrective measures. 
 
For the countries that entered reservation, including Nigeria, their argument was that since Africa did not collectively decide to enter into the treaty, they could not ask them to collectively withdraw from it. Therefore, the decision to withdraw should be left to individual countries.
 
Do you think mass pull out from the ICC is the best option for African?
 
My personal view is that the Africans are passing across a message, saying something is wrong with how the ICC is operating. If you want to keep Africans as ICC members you have to address their concerns. If I were ICC, I would now enter into a serious discussion with Africans to hear their complaints and address them and thereby discourage mass withdrawal from the Court. 
 
Nigeria was among the countries that entered “reservation”. Do you think it was a good decision?
 
I’m not in government and cannot speak for the government. My personal opinion is that they were right to express reservation about the process but there are three things they have to consider. One, there are consequences for undermining a collective decision by the African Union. Two, they need to explain clearly that entering reservation, on the AU decision does not mean that Nigeria is totally happy with the way ICC is going about prosecuting only sitting  African presidents, and third, that entering reservation does not mean supporting any effort to weaken the instrument of checking impunity on the continent.  I think these explanations need to be made clearly and in a well-articulated manner so that people can see where Nigeria is coming from. 
 
Nigeria contested for Peace and Security Commissioner of the AU and lost. Do you think this affected the country’s influence on the continent?
 
Well, I don’t think so, though it was quite unfortunate. And this is not the time to cry over spilled milk. Right now, let’s see where we are. The President of the African Development Bank is a Nigerian. Outside our continent, the Secretary General of OPEC is also a Nigerian. The new Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations is a Nigerian.  If we had no influence, I don’t think we would have been able to mobilize the African countries to support us in these critical positions. It is always a win or lose situation. Having said that, it is a fact that Nigeria lost that particular election though we believe we had a good candidate. But then other countries had better and formidable candidates. As I said earlier, I am not in government and don’t speak for any government. But I do not know how these appointments and selections are made. I believe that if we look beyond whatever consideration and search through all the nooks and crannies of our diplomatic circle with the interest of the nation at heart, we have many qualified candidates that can fly and compete favourably with any other candidate from other African countries. It is regrettable that right now, there is no single Nigerian in the entire AU Commission. Nigeria, as you know, is among the major contributors not only to the budget of the AU but also a leading nation in peace and security maintenance in our region. Hence, there are important lessons to be learnt from the failure of the country’s effort to secure a single commissionership in the AU Commission. 
 
What is your advice to the new leadership of African Union?
 
They should do more on preventing violent conflicts and wars. The conventional wisdom is that prevention is better and cheaper than cure. For example, they talk about silencing the guns. The guns should not even start at all. It is more difficult and costlier to silence the guns than to prevent them from starting. 
 
Two, the new leadership should put a lot of emphasis on addressing the challenges facing African youths and women - their education, health and employment. Women and youths are the human capital and the future of our continent depends on their enterprise and contributions. Third, they must insist on true partnership with the United Nations and other international organizations. Africa should be regarded as partners in addressing challenges based on mutual respect, understanding and commitment. 
 
*Photo Caption - ICC logo