Translational inhibition due to CHEAP RETIN-A the fact that the path of the excitation occurs Br neuron. recurrent inhibition     Carried intercalary brake cells (Renshaw). Axons of buy nolvadex online canada motor neurons often give collaterals (branches), ending with Renshaw cells. Renshaw cell axons terminate on the body or dendrites of the motor neuron, forming inhibitory synapses. Arousal that occurs in motor neurons travel in a straight path to the skeletal muscle, as well as collaterals to inhibitory neurons, which send impulses to motoneurons and inhibits them. The stronger the motor neuron excitation, the more excited Renshaw cells and the more intense they exert their inhibitory effect, which protects nerve cells from overstimulation. lateral inhibition    
 

[ Masterweb Reports: Press Release For Immediate Release ] - The Rivers State Chapter of the All Progressives Congress (APC) has endorsed the Niger Delta Peace Initiative recently launched by South-South leaders under the leadership of the Minister of Transportation, Rt. Hon. Chibuike Rotimi Amaechi. The party in a statement issued on Monday in Port Harcourt by the State Chairman, Chief (Dr.) Ibiamu Ikanya, praised Amaechi for assembling South-South stakeholders under the umbrella of the Initiative for Peace, Governance and Development of the South-South to proffer solutions to the current destruction of the oil pipelines and ecosystem of the region.
 
“This historical peace parley held at the Lagos Hall of Transcorp Hilton Hotel, Abuja, on 24th September, 2016 was a welcome development and should be supported by all true sons and daughters of the Niger Delta,” the party said. It added: “We are ashamed that some disgruntled elements can take pleasure in destroying the facilities that convey oil, the mainstay of our national economy. Apart from this, our environment is polluted, thereby making fishing and farming – the major sources of livelihood of our people – impossible.
 
“We urge those behind these unwarranted attacks against our region to have a rethink and save us from being looked upon as a people who are violent. Apart from destroying government facilities, their activities serve to scare away investors that are desperately needed in developing our region.”
 
Rivers APC said it is not surprised by the Amaechi initiative to restore peace to the Niger Delta considering the great initiatives he used in ensuring peace and security of lives during his eight years reign as Governor of Rivers State. “This peace parlay simply demonstrates Amaechi’s concern for the peace, development and emancipation of the Niger Delta region and we pray that our leaders will buy into this and allow peace to reign in our region,” the party said.
 
It commended all those working with Amaechi on this latest peace move, urging them to be guided by the biblical admonition found in the Gospel of Saint Mathew in Chapter 5 verse 9, “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.”
 
“We urge therefore all Niger Deltans to stop blaming others for our woes and get our priorities right in this government that has demonstrated commitment to develop our region,” the statement said. “In this vein, we admonish all the interventionist agencies such as the Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs and Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) to expedite action in the discharge of their mandate. We are convinced that if these agencies work accordingly and with the various State Governments in the region utilise the 13% derivation fund judiciously; our region will be developed, militancy will be eradicated as the reasons adduced for the blowing up of the oil facilities would no longer be exist.”

The communiqué issued at the end of the stakeholders engagement meeting under the auspices of the Initiative for Peace, Governance and Development of the Niger Delta Region on this 24th day of September 2016 was duly signed by these great Niger Delta Leaders.
 
1. PROF. BEN AYADE
2. SEN. VICTOR NDOMA-EGBA
3. MR. DONALD DUKE
4. SEN. BASSEY OTU
5. SEN. FLORENCE ITA-GIWA
6. HIS EMINENCE KING (DR) EDMUND DAKORU
7. HRM KING EBITIMI BANIGO
8. HRM FRANK OKORAKPO
9. HRM KING W.S. JOSHUA IGBUGBURU
10. HIS EXCELLENCY, CHIEF (NAVY CAPT) WALTER FEEHABO-AMAIN
11. REAR ADMIRAL FESTUS PORBENI (RTD)
12. PROF. T. TURNER ISOUN
13. SEN INATIMI R. SPIFF
14. CHIEF TIMI ALAIBE
15. SEN. E. W. T. DIFFA
16. OLOROGUN FRANK KOKORI
17. BARR. JUSTIN REWANE
18. NDUKA OBAEGBNA
19. DR. OGAGA IFOWODO
20. HON E. T. AGBONAYIMA
21. HIS EXCELLENCY, OBONG VICTOR ATTAH
22. RT. HON. EMAH BASSEY
23. RT. HON. BERNARD UDO
24. RT. HON. IGNATIUS EDET
25. OBONG BASSEY INUAEYEN
26. PROF. OKON EMINUE
27. CHIEF DON ETIEBET
28. OBONG UMANA O. UMANA
29. DR. AKPAN MICAH UMOH
30. H.E. NSIMA EKERE
31. MRS IBIM SEMENITARI
32. PROF. NIMI BRIGGS
33. PROF. B.B FAKAE
34. BARR. BOMA OBUOFORIBO
35. DR. I. N. IRAGUNIMA
36. PRINCE TONYE PRINCEWILL
37. CHIEF ANDREW UCHENDU
38. SEN. MAGNUS ABE
39. CHIEF TONY URANTA
40. HON. MENE L. DEREK
41. RT. HON. CHIBUIKE ROTIMI AMAECHI
42. HRM KING MALLA SASIME (EBENIBE OF EPIE)
43. HRM KING OKPOITARI DIONGOLI (IBEDAOWEI OF OPOKUMA)
44. OLOROGUN OTEGA EMERHOR (OON)
45. ENGR SAMUEL ADJOGBE
With over 150 other persons in attendance.
 
Long Live APC!
Long Live Rivers State!!
Long Live Federal Republic of Nigeria
Long Live President Muhammadu Buhari
 
Chief Eze Chukwuemeka Eze
SSA Media and Public Affairs to the State Chairman, APC Rivers State.
Email: ezemediaconcept2020@gmail.com
26-09-16
 
*Photo Caption - APC logo

[ Masterweb Reports: Peregrino Brimah reports ] - The Nigerian Central Bank has once again silently maintained a dual forex exchange rate, further aggravating Nigeria's economic recession while festering corruption. In June of this year, after being implicated in the triggering the economic collapse, the Central Bank announced the floating (devaluation) of the Naira to allow the interbank rate match up with the parallel market, BDC rate. However since then, while the BDC rate has further dropped to N465/$1 (currently), the interbank rate has been artificially held at around N312/$1. This has thus created and maintained a 50% disparity between the two rates.
 
Periodically injected CBN announcements and sudden new regulations have targeted the BDC dollar supply thereby deliberately expanding the gap.
 
The negative impacts of the duality in rates have been recognized and thoroughly criticized by local and foreign experts and entities. This rate-dichotomy does not only drive away investment but also directly promotes corruption while siphoning away billions in government dollars given to cabal at the subsidized rate. With all features implicated in contributing to and exacerbating the recession.
 
Those with access to CBN-subsidized dollars have been accused of engaging in the sale and supply of this to BDC customers and retailers thereby raking 50% profit on each dollar at the current rates. Large companies with connections to the powers that be and CBN management are enabled to create phony dollar requests used to purchase items for needy BDC customers, thus circumventing the law and immediately making 50% on the dollar; $500,000 on every million dollars round tripped. [See: Sanusi: FG Creates Billionaires through Forex Round Tripping; August 25, 2016]
 
Nigeria's government corruption-made billionaire Aliko Dangote was gifted a whopping $100 million via this CBN cabal-funding scheme, according to a report by Reuters this June, which examined just a 3-month span of CBN-released figures. This translates to a staggering gift of as much as half a billion dollars by the Apex Bank to a single cabal in one year and billions of dollars to the handful of cabal for the period. The CBN was found to sell as much as 10% of all government dollars to just Dangote for his personal needs at the official subsidized rate. We are talking about catastrophic loses of Nigeria's revenue. Millions of Nigerians suffer and die for one man to be pleased.
 
At the current rate, on every billion subsidized dollars the CBN sells to Dangote, he will immediately make a massive half a billion dollars. This loss of revenue of the masses has been accused of being directly responsible for the deepening economic recession. Small businesses are not given access to dollars and have been folding up leading to job losses in the millions while the cabal are fed fat on Nigeria's oil earnings, making economic recovery impossible. Femi Kuti asked why Buhari does not simply rename Nigeria "Federal Republic of Dangote?" 
 
The FGN is seeking to borrow $1 billion in eurobond while giving the same and more out in gift to the cabal by maintaining the amphibious forex rates.
 
The same cabal who in partnership with the Central Bank and successive governments including the present, keep the nation in reverse and got it into a recession, have now coerced the government to sell them its assets as a fallacious "means out of the recession."
 
And it's happening all in the masses' faces. Someone must have taught the cabal-controlled government that it's easy to keep the Nigerian masses distracted from noticing dangerous and treacherous manipulations: just show them some money found with Patience and they will be stupidly patient. I resist agreeing.
 
God will deliver Nigeria.
 
Peregrino Brimah ( Email: drbrimah@gmail.com ) reports.
 
*Photo Caption - Godwin Emefiele, Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) governor.

[ Masterweb Reports: SKC Ogbonnia reports ] - For full disclosure, I am an Igbo man. I am also one of the pundits currently being lampooned for cheering President Muhammadu Buhari to democratic power. Yet, knowing what I know now, I will lend that support all over again—and even more. Unless we have begun to view the history from a tainted lens, the thought of the very alternative, which was to bring back Goodluck Jonathan, remains a portent of much bigger crisis. More relatively, I strongly endorse Buhari’s latest mantra: “Change begins with me.”  And that is exactly what this piece is set to accomplish.
 
Let me quickly wet the ground by first defining effective leadership as the ability of the leader to maximize the available resources within the internal and external environment and be recognized by the followers as meeting the expectations. Please notice that this definition has two components. One is for the leader to do a good job. The other, and probably more instructive, is for the leader to be seen by the follower as doing a good job.
 
Like every Nigerian leader, Buhari assumed the presidency with good intentions. The president is also working hard. Despite the economic mess left behind by the previous government, he is soldiering on with measurable progress on many areas. Regrettably, most Nigerians see the efforts as busy doing nothing. Accordingly, Buhari is making changes beginning from his very self. But there is one critical problem the General has continued to ignore that is firmly woven into the fabric of our current quest for economic revival: His Igbo problem.
 
For obvious reasons, the problem was initially waved off as a typical Igbo palaver. Sadly, it has now widened with untold social, political, and economic consequences. Before getting to the main gist, here is a cursory glance at the Igbo—just in case.
 
As one of the major Nigerian ethnic groups, the Igbo are the natural inhabitants of the Southeast and some areas of South-South and North-Central zones of Nigeria. The people are predominantly Christians and uniquely boast of being the first or second largest population in most parts of the country. Known for their unique resilience, resourcefulness, can-do spirit and, of course, unbounded technological and scientific acumen; the Igbo represent the hybrid engine of Nigeria’s commerce. These diverse traits help in no small measure as they forge social, political, and economic influence around Nigeria.
 
But the influence is even beyond. The Igbo have embraced the reigning economic gospel that we no longer merely live in a country but in a world. Thus, with a heavy presence around the globe, they gleefully play a commanding role in nation’s foreign exchange, foreign trade, foreign investment as well as relationships. Not surprisingly, the Igbo in the Diaspora are a leading block contributor to the yearly amount of foreign money remitted to Nigeria, which is ironically more than the national budget. Very significantly, the people are one of the key drivers of Nigeria’s media home and abroad and thus have the potential to influence how the country is perceived anywhere.
 
The foregoing attributes are more than enough to discern that the Igbo is as important as any other ethnic group and ought to be carried along in the current change agenda of the government. Chinua Achebe was more eloquent in the book, There Was a Country: The perennial tendency to undermine the unique role of the Igbo in Nigeria “is one of the fundamental reasons the country has not developed as it should and has emerged as a laughingstock.”  But events thus far suggest that Buhari might have been ill-advised to challenge the theory from the onset.   

This apparent dissent is rooted in the 2015 presidential elections where a vast majority of the Igbo joined the South-South to vote en masse against Buhari’s winning candidacy. However, rather than use the historic mandate to rally the different political divisions towards common purpose, the president would shock the democratic world by revealing his plan to marginalize the zones that voted against him. Many pundits thought his statement was a mere gaffe. But the records afterwards seem to suggest that Muhammadu “Okechukwu” Buhari actually meant the threat of vendetta against the Igbo, particularly those from the Southeast.

Critics are free to join here. But there is no gainsaying that the Igbo people are truly marginalized in the current scheme of things. As I had penned in October 2015, the upper echelon of Buhari’s government is a preview. “The underlying rationale in this case is that the positions of the President, Vice-President, Senate President, Speaker, Chairman of the ruling party, and the Secretary to Federal Government have been staked in the past 16 years as the main thrust of the party in power and thence rotated among the six political zones of the country.” Yet, the Southeast was conspicuously denied its share. Moreover, it is no coincidence that the same Southeast Nigeria, the mainstay of the Igbo nation, is the only zone without a personnel presence in the nation’s security leadership apparatus.

This outlook coupled with a stoic indifference by the president triggered outrage in the land. It straightaway provoked the Movement for the Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), then a sedate outfit, to declare “that Buhari is not seeing Ndigbo as part of Nigeria.” The Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) was not to be left behind, as it heightened its call for secession from the country. Their activities, however, were met with brute force, including the detention without bail of its leader, Nnamdi Kalu. This plight is today commonly linked to the birth of a new militant group under the auspices of Niger Delta Avengers. We are all living witnesses to the economic repercussions of the Biafran movement and their Avengers ever since.

The title of this piece will not be apt if the empathy for the current wave of Igbo marginalization did not flow past east of River Niger. Recognizing that the ruling party treated it as business as usual, the opposition from the highly influential Southwest Nigeria led by the trio of Ayo Fayose, Femi Fani-Kayode, and Femi Aribisala capitalized on the saga to strike back. What just took place here, and painfully so, is that Muhammadu Buhari had inadvertently provided a lifeline for the corrupt brigade of the immediate past regime—from the east, north, and west—to resurface and now grandstand as latter-day fighters of what is widely believed as naked injustice to the people of the Southeast. And what followed, thereafter, was a montage of propaganda that successfully painted the president as an unapologetic bigot determined to punish not only the Igbo but also the entire Christian-dominated South.

The development caught the attention of the Northern zone of the Christian Association of Nigeria, which lamented as follows: “while there were volumes of allegations from the South that the appointments made so far were in favour of the north, facts on the ground revealed that those appointments were lopsided in favour of Muslim north to the detriment of Northern Christian community.” More dauntingly, many blame part of the current crisis on Buhari’s economic policy, particularly foreign exchange, which is believed to be tribally skewed to specially benefit his Fulani kinsmen who control bureau de change across the country.

Today, not only is the national economy in recession, the negative opinion of Buhari is growing beyond our shores. Although a number of world leaders showered praises on him during the recent UN session in New York for giant strides against corruption and terrorism, which is very gratifying, a creeping concern within the international community remains that Nigeria’s president is a dictator, tribalist, sectionalist, misogynist, and religious bigot—all in one person. This emerging view—whether real or not—explains why US Congressman Tom Marino, a member of the Foreign Affairs Committee, on a September 1, 2016 letter, would warn the United States to withhold selling arms to Nigeria until Buhari demonstrates true “commitment to inclusive government and the most basic tenets of democracy: freedom to assemble and freedom of speech.”
 
This spectre is gloomy, square. It does not bode well for an economy in recession. In short, it scares away investment whether local or foreign, especially in this era of economic globalization where millions of Nigerians in the Diaspora, the Igbo well included, represent the convex lens through which the world sees Nigeria. This also goes to say that even as President Buhari might have done a good job on the area of corruption, the fact that he is generally perceived as condoning gross injustice at another area renders his entire effort pyrrhic.
 
The central problem is complex and thus difficult to capture at once. But the solution is quite simple. For every question raised in this essay sufficiently answers itself. Buhari has to simply trek back to where the rain started beating him and make amends. Allowing the problem to linger not only threatens the chances of our economic revival but also the hard-earned change. Even if he is not thinking of 2019, which he should, Mr. President cannot feign ignorance of the fact that his queasy quandary with the Legislature has his Igbo problem written all over it. Very true!
 
SKC Ogbonnia ( Email: SKCOgbonnia@firsttexasenergy.com ) reports.
 
*Photo Caption - President Muhammadu Buhari
 
 

[ Masterweb Reports ] - Masterweb developed this page in a bid to daily keep you abreast of Nigerian and world news events so you are well informed and do not miss any news occurrence in Nigeria and around the globe. Most Nigerian newspapers are updated daily. Nigeria and World News Headlines are uptaded every ten minutes as events unfold in the world. 
 
This news page is a useful tool to both Nigerians and everybody irrespective of his or her nationality and country of residence in keeping abreast of current news around the world. We have millions of satisfied users of this page, some of who have made financial contributions in supporting the page and its component link sections.  
 
Use the links below to update yourself of today's news events - 
 
=> Click To Read Nigerian Newspapers
 
=> Click To Read Nigerian News Headlines
 
=> Click To Read World News Headlines
 
=> Click To Read Nigeria Radio & TV News
 
=> Click To Read World Radio & TV News
 
To adequately keep abreast of Nigerian and world news events daily, below is a guide to follow so you do not miss any single news event in Nigeria and around the globe. This means that the news guide is important to both Nigerians and everybody irrespective of his or her nationality and country of residence.
 
STEPS TO FOLLOW NOT TO MISS ANY SINGLE NEWS ITEM
 
1. STEP ONE - Start-off by subscribing to Masterweb RSS News Feed - This is a one time action. Subscription to Masterweb RSS News Feed allows for the automatic download of our news updates to your computer - that way Masterweb news updates come to you automatically. Click here to subscribe to Masterweb RSS News Feed
 
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2. STEP TWO - Start the day by visiting our Newspapers Section ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/paperfrmes.html ) and read Nigerian and world news from different sources including Nigerian newspapers.
 
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3. STEP THREE - Visit both our Nigeria News Headlines ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/NigeriaNewsHeadlines.html/ ) and World News Headlines ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/WorldNewsHeadlines.html/ ) several times (up to 12 times) daily as the pages are updated every 45 minutes. During a visit, if the news is not updated, hit the F1 key on your keyboard to refresh the page for the latest news update.
 
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4. STEP FOUR - Check out what are on radio and TV in Nigeria and the world by visiting Nigeria Radio & TV News and World Radio & TV News
 
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5. STEP FIVE - Check out what our news contributors may have posted for the day at our Citizen News ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/blog/ ) and Masterweb Reports Section ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/Masterweb/ )
 
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6. STEP SIX - Revisit our Newspapers Section ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/paperfrmes.html ) before bedtime for late updates and/or following day's early updates by Masterweb and Nigerian newspapers.
 
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7. YOU ARE NOW FULLY INFORMED FOR THE DAY - If you follow the guide above, you will never miss any news event in the world. This means that you will be fully equipped to engage in any news or current affairs discussion anywhere and any place in the world. Best of luck!
 
8. ALL NEWS LINKS ABOVE ORGANIZED ON ONE PAGE - Masterweb has put together a unique page that has all the news links above that you need to adequately keep abreast of Nigerian and world news events - Click here to go to the page ( the Link or URL is http://www.nigeriamasterweb.com/NeverMissNewsEvents.html ).
 
*Photo Caption - As seen.

[ Masterweb Reports: Isiaka Wakili reports ] - Vice President Yemi Osinbajo has said that he and President Muhammadu Buhari are not in government to make money. The vice president said this at the Aso Rock Presidential Villa in Abuja on Thursday while receiving a delegation of the Christian Ministers Welfare Initiative also known as the Pastors’ Forum, Taraba State.



"It's madness for anybody in our position to be looking for money. God put people in a position of authority for them to be able to do something for their people If any Nigerian gets the chance to be president of the country, there is nothing he/she is looking for anymore except that while there, you improve the lot of the people," he stated.

The vice president assured that President Buhari was ready to put everything on the line to make the country great.

“This morning, I had a meeting with the president, and he repeated to me twice that ‘at my age, there is only one thing I am looking for; I want to see a great Nigeria'. He (Buhari) has no other objective, and I feel very inspired by that," he stated.
 
*Photo Caption - President Muhammadu Buhari

[ Masterweb Reports ] – Yesterday, Wednesday, September 28 Donald J. Trump’s campaign rally train made a successful stop at Waukesha, Wisconsin, a suburb about eighteen miles from Milwaukee, the biggest city in population in Wisconsin. Masterweb was there to report the news as she was one of the accredited media duly issued media pass to cover the rally. The event scheduled at The Waukesha County Expo Center for 6.00 pm, at 4.00 pm when Masterweb reporters got to the venue had a very long line of people queued up for ........Read More
 
 
 
 
*Photo Caption - Donald Trump addressing the rally.

[ Masterweb Reports ] - Masterweb developed this page in a bid to daily keep you abreast of Nigerian and world news events so you are well informed and do not miss any news occurrence in Nigeria and around the globe. Most Nigerian newspapers are updated daily. Nigeria and World News Headlines are uptaded every ten minutes as events unfold in the world. 
 
This news page is a useful tool to both Nigerians and everybody irrespective of his or her nationality and country of residence in keeping abreast of current news around the world. We have millions of satisfied users of this page, some of who have made financial contributions in supporting the page and its component link sections.  
 
Use the links below to update yourself of today's news events - 
 
=> Click To Read Nigerian Newspapers
 
=> Click To Read Nigerian News Headlines
 
=> Click To Read World News Headlines
 
=> Click To Read Nigeria Radio & TV News
 
=> Click To Read World Radio & TV News
 
To adequately keep abreast of Nigerian and world news events daily, below is a guide to follow so you do not miss any single news event in Nigeria and around the globe. This means that the news guide is important to both Nigerians and everybody irrespective of his or her nationality and country of residence.
 
STEPS TO FOLLOW NOT TO MISS ANY SINGLE NEWS ITEM
 
1. STEP ONE - Start-off by subscribing to Masterweb RSS News Feed - This is a one time action. Subscription to Masterweb RSS News Feed allows for the automatic download of our news updates to your computer - that way Masterweb news updates come to you automatically. Click here to subscribe to Masterweb RSS News Feed
 
_______
 
2. STEP TWO - Start the day by visiting our Newspapers Section ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/paperfrmes.html ) and read Nigerian and world news from different sources including Nigerian newspapers.
 
_______
 
3. STEP THREE - Visit both our Nigeria News Headlines ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/NigeriaNewsHeadlines.html/ ) and World News Headlines ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/WorldNewsHeadlines.html/ ) several times (up to 12 times) daily as the pages are updated every 45 minutes. During a visit, if the news is not updated, hit the F1 key on your keyboard to refresh the page for the latest news update.
 
_______
 
4. STEP FOUR - Check out what are on radio and TV in Nigeria and the world by visiting Nigeria Radio & TV News and World Radio & TV News
 
_______
 
5. STEP FIVE - Check out what our news contributors may have posted for the day at our Citizen News ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/blog/ ) and Masterweb Reports Section ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/Masterweb/ )
 
_______
 
6. STEP SIX - Revisit our Newspapers Section ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/paperfrmes.html ) before bedtime for late updates and/or following day's early updates by Masterweb and Nigerian newspapers.
 
_______
 
7. YOU ARE NOW FULLY INFORMED FOR THE DAY - If you follow the guide above, you will never miss any news event in the world. This means that you will be fully equipped to engage in any news or current affairs discussion anywhere and any place in the world. Best of luck!
 
8. ALL NEWS LINKS ABOVE ORGANIZED ON ONE PAGE - Masterweb has put together a unique page that has all the news links above that you need to adequately keep abreast of Nigerian and world news events - Click here to go to the page ( the Link or URL is http://www.nigeriamasterweb.com/NeverMissNewsEvents.html ).
 
*Photo Caption - As seen.

[ Masterweb Reports: Intersociety reports ] - (Intersociety: Onitsha Nigeria, 26th of September 2016)-It shocks and alarms us on continuous basis concerning orchestrated and systematic stigmatization and criminalization of the citizens’ rights to freedom of association, expression, movement, personal liberty and fair hearing by the Nigerian Security Forces and unprofessional print media; particularly since the inception of the Government of Gen Muhammadu Buhari. Despite the enshrinement of these fundamental human rights and their justiciability (S.46), on account of their containment in Sections 40, 39, 41, 35 and 36 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999, as amended in 2011; they have suffered gross brutalization and bastardization in the hands of the Security Forces and unprofessional print media.
 
 
Apart from the above constitutional guarantees and protections in the 1999 Constitution, they are also fully recognized by the African Charter on Human & Peoples’ Rights of 1981 (ACHPR), the UN Covenant on Civil & Political Rights of 1976 (ICCPR) as well as the Basic Standard of International Law& Humanitarian Principles of the United Nations; a driving force of the Principles and Purposes of the United Nations. The latter not only recognize the rights of the citizens of the Member-States of the UN including Nigeria, to peaceful assemblies and expressions, but also outline ways through which their exercises shall be managed or responded to by security forces.  As all are aware, Nigeria ratified ICCPR in 1993 and ratified and domesticated the ACHPR in 1983. Nigeria is also bound morally and legally by the Fundamental Rules of the United Nations including the basic standard of International Law and Humanitarian Principles as well as the Purposes and Purposes of the United Nations.
 
 
For instance,  under the ten basic standards of international law made mandatory for security forces of Member-States of the UN for the management of civil assemblies and free speeches as well as arrest, detention and prosecution of citizens accused of commission of municipal crimes of whatever code definition; following key directives are provided: (1) treat all victims of crime with compassion and respect, and in particular protect their safety and privacy; (2) avoid using force when policing unlawful but nonviolent assemblies; (3) when dispersing violent assemblies, use force only to the minimum extent necessary (i.e. in line with proportionate use of force and avoidance of application of excessive force on non-military necessity).
 
 
Others are (4) arrest no person unless there are legal wounds to do so and ensure that the arrest is carried out in accordance with lawful arrest procedures; (5) ensure that all detainees have access, promptly after arrest to their families and legal representatives and to any necessary medical assistance; (6) all detainees must be treated humanly and humanely and avoid infliction, instigation or toleration of any act of torture in any circumstance and refuse to obey order to do so; (7) do not carry out, order or cover up extrajudicial executions  or disappearances of the arrested or the detained  and refuse to obey any order to do so; (8) etc.
 
 
Sadly, these sacred international rules and obligations and their sister provisions in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999, as amended in 2011; are not only observed in gross breach by the security forces and unprofessional print media in Nigeria but have also faced systematic patterns of stigmatization and criminalization to the extent they are now classified as military necessity, warranting militarized and violent responses or actions including mass murder or massacre of proponents of peaceful assemblies and free speeches and injuring of others.
 
 
Others are: unjust arrest and detention of unarmed and innocent citizens without trial; indiscriminate pre-trial or custodial killings, torture and disappearances. Today, the Nigerian Security Forces, fully backed by a presidential death code issued by President Muhammadu Buhari; erroneously and mischievously tagged: rules of engagement of the Nigerian Armed Forces; place high security priority on peaceful assemblies and free speeches than the activities of terrorist organizations or violent armed opposition groups like Boko Haram and Fulani Janjaweed (Herdsmen).
 
 
As a matter of fact, the Buhari Administration does not consider the violent activities of the Fulani Janjaweed, which lead to massacre of hundreds of unarmed and innocent Nigerians almost on weekly bsis as a public security threat requiring military actions under the UN’s Rules of Engagement or the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Four Protocols of 1977.
 
 
The most abominable and unforgiving of it all is the Nigerian Security Forces deliberate application or use of war-time military approaches or methodologies in managing civil assemblies and democratic free speeches. For the purpose of setting the records straight, civil or peaceful assemblies and free speeches, no matter their intents, are purely non-military or non-war or nonviolent affairs or conducts and are totally devoid of military necessity, warranting State violent approaches or use of force, not to talk of excessive application of State force or violence.
 
 
That is to say that the Rules of Engagement of the UN and International Law recognition and definition are strictly applied in war or conflict situations. Just like we have severally educated publicly, the Rules of Engagement, which are presently corrupted and bastardized by the Nigerian Armed Forces (including the Army, Police, DSS, Navy, etc), are strictly applicable in international or internal armed conflict; otherwise referred to as complex humanitarian emergencies.  
 
 
Key features of the internationally standardized Rules of Engagement, strictly applied in war or conflict situations  are (1) legitimate use of force, (2) proportionality of use of force, (3) legitimate self defense, (4) treatment of prisoners of war or conflict, (5) avoidance of attacks on non-military necessity or civilian targets or properties, (6) avoidance of attacks on civilians or non-combatants, (7) treatment of the wounded, (8) avoidance of attacks on culture symbols or places of worship, (9) avoidance of attacks on humanitarian agencies and personnel/human rights activists; (10) treatment of other peoples of the war (i.e. spies and journalists).
 
 
The Rules of Engagement are the integral part of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Four Protocols of 1977; and originally came from the three war doctrines of Jus Ad Bellum (justification and ground for going to war); Jus In Bellum (ethical rules of conduct during war, such as ethical standards expected of soldiers in wartime or rules of engagement); and Jus Post Bellum (regulations on how wars are ended and facilitation of transition from war to peace).
 
 
Another name for the Rules of Engagement is the Standard Rules for the People of the War. The People of the War here literally means parties in the conflict who occupy the conflict areas such as fighting parties, non-combatants or civilians as well as other third parties playing direct or indirect roles in the conflict.
 
 
In all, non-war civil conducts such as civil or peaceful assemblies and democratic free speeches have nothing whatsoever to do with the so called Rules of Engagement of the Nigerian Armed Forces neither do they have any to do with the UN and International Law’s standardized Rules of Engagement. In managing civil assemblies and democratic free speeches for whatever intents, use of military actions including mass shooting and wounding of protesters and militarization of the protesting entities are out-rightly and inexcusably forbidden.
 
 
Such civil assemblies and free speeches even if they turn non-lethally violent are managed under UN System or within the confines of international best practices using modern non-lethal crowd control instruments or devices such as tear gas, rubber bullets, pepper spray, electric tasers, batons, whips, water cannons, long range acoustic devices, aerial surveillance, police dogs, etc; which are aided by body protective devices such as anti crowd helmets, face visors, body armor (i.e. vests, neck protectors, knee pads, etc), gas masks and anti crowd shields?
 
 
This special human rights education or public awareness on management of civil or peaceful assemblies and free speeches in Nigeria is extremely necessary so as to educate, expose and condemn the intensified stigmatization and criminalization of same by Nigerian Security Forces and unprofessional print media. The stigmatization and criminalization under reference are done deliberately and systematically by the security forces as a justification for committing the highlighted conduct atrocities which amount to crimes against humanity (i.e. State crimes or regime atrocities committed against unarmed and innocent citizens in peacetime or in non-war situations). Unprofessionalism or media corruption or both are chiefly suspected as the brain behind print media’s conspiracy in stigmatizing and criminalizing civil or peaceful assemblies and free speeches in Nigeria.
 
 
The Nigerian Security Forces particularly the Nigerian Army, Nigeria Police Force and the DSS have steadily or systematically stigmatized and criminalized Pro Biafra agitations in Nigeria. Apart from official nonviolence stance declared by the leadership of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), totality of our advocacy investigations particularly in the Southeast and the South-south of Nigeria as they relate to IPOB agitation matches, rallies and processions, has not, till date, found the group engaging in violent and other traditional crime conducts such as looting, car-jacking, abduction/kidnapping, armed robbery, extortion, sexual harassment, house breaking or stealing during or after its street or in-door protests.
 
 
We have also not found IPOB as a group using or advocating violence as a method in its self determination agitation for the status of its Biafra Land through national or international referenda. Till date, the group is not traced to any form of armed rebellion or insurrection or armed uprising in Nigeria or any part thereof. Where pockets of breaches are recorded during its public peacefully intended protests, such happened on account of State provocation through use of massive State violence or expression of anger for mass murder and other mass shooting of its unarmed and defenseless members by security forces particularly the Nigerian Army.
 
 
The stigmatization and criminalization of the IPOB peaceful and lawful agitation and free speeches have thickened in recent months particularly in the press conferences and other public statements issued by the Nigerian Army, Nigeria Police Force and the DSS. IPOB has in several of these publications been classified as “militant group”, “terrorist group” or “armed Independent People of Biafra (A-IPOB)”. At the other time, the group was tagged “insurrectionist group”.
 
 
Apart from these criminal labeling, the Police, DSS and the Army have gone further to clamp down on its members and sympathizers and treat them as “terrorist suspects”; clamping and detaining them for months without trial. In the course of all these, the provisions of the 1999 Constitution are breached with reckless abandon. Comrade Chidiebere Onwudiwe, for instance, has been detained incommunicado as a “terrorist” for 94 days without trial or administrative bail, having been arrested, according to the official statement of the DSS, on 22nd June 2016.
 
 
By the express provision of Section 35 (4) (a) of the 1999 Constitution, Comrade Chidiebere Onwudiwe is no longer triable, having been held incommunicado or without administrative or court bail for over two months or 60 days. He is also not triable having been held in DSS custody for over 90days without bail and trial. This is contrary to Section 35 (4) (b) of the Constitution. We call on the Attorney General of the Federation to take note!
 
 
The Nigerian Security Forces also routinely torture their detained IPOB activists for the purpose of forcing them into admitting being “terrorists” when not even fireworks were found on them. They routinely raid their residences in the dead of the night, shoot and arrest them and take them away without informing them of crimes under which they were arrested. The security forces also compile lists of unarmed and defenseless members of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) and put them in their wanted list. IPOB activists arrested and detained are also made victims of jungle justice or trial-by-ordeal.  
 
 
 
The unprofessional print media, on their part, have steadily stigmatized and criminalized the IPOB nonviolent protests. Even when such protests are sit-at-home, the print media must find a way of stigmatizing and criminalizing same. The Vanguard and the Sun Newspapers news reports of Saturday, September 24, 2016 on IPOB organized sit-at-home protest in the Southeast and the South-south of Nigeria per their Saturday Editors; are a clear case in point.
 
 
For instance, apart from attempts to create a false public impression of “failure” of the sit-at-home protest, the editors further claimed that “that those who stayed away did so because of fears of being attacked by IPOB”; thereby labeling IPOB a violent group or an armed uprising group.
 
 
At Intersociety, we got surprise calls from some journalists on Friday, 22nd September 2016 (day of IPOB organized sit-at-home protest) asking us “how many trailers were burnt in Onitsha”. This is when it is clear to them that the protest was sit-at-home and not street protest. Which explains our position that “the stigmatization and criminalization of peaceful assemblies and free speeches (i.e. IPOB led protests) by the print media are borne out of unprofessionalism or media corruption or both”.
 
 
We condemn in its entirety the stigmatization and criminalization of civil and nonviolent protests and democratic free speeches in Nigeria. The conspiracy of the print media in the conduct atrocities is further condemned. We call on all Nigerians and members of the international community to take advocacy notice of this special publication and stand up at all times against stigmatization and criminalization of civil assemblies and free speeches by the Nigerian Armed Forces and their unprofessional print media collaborators. Rights to freedom of association, expression, movement, fair hearing and personal liberty, which are locally and internationally recognized and entrenched, must be defended and upheld by all and sundry at all times.
 
 
Signed:
 
 
Emeka Umeagbalasi, B.Sc., Criminology & Security Studies; M.Sc. (c), Peace & Conflict Studies
 
Board Chairman, International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law-INTERSOCIETY
 
Mobile Line: +2348174090052
 
Email: info@intersociety-ng.org
 
Website: www.intersociety-ng.org
 
 
Obianuju Igboeli, Esq., LLB, BL; LLM (c)
 
Head, Civil Liberties & Rule of Law Program
 
Mobile Line: +2348034186332
 
 
Chinwe Umeche, Esq., LLB, BL
 
Mobile Line: +2347013238673
 
Head, Democracy & Good Governance Program
 
*Photo Caption - As seen.

[ Masterweb Reports: Dr. Peregrino Brimah reports ] - No kidding, Nigeria's finance minister Kemi Adeosun just compared Nigeria's proposed sale of assets to the Saudi plan to sell 5% or Aramco (Saudi Arabian Oil Co). I'll list below 10 differences that seriously highlight the misgivings in the finance minister's sales pitch:
 
1. Saudi Arabia plans to sell just 5% of its oil assets while maintaining an overwhelming 95% majority, while Nigeria has not indicated a plan to sell such a little fraction of each asset but to give them out whole.
 
2. Saudi Arabia is not selling from a position of desperation and inability to manage the assets but from a position of strength and at top price for assets properly operated and exploited.
 
3. While Nigeria only intends to auction its assets to fund its budget, the Sauds intend to auction 5% of Aramco to fund a visionary masterplan long-term reform programme, dubbed "Saudi Vision 2030," with the $2 trillion funds from the sale, planned to set up the world's largest sovereign wealth fund capable of buying Apple, Microsoft, Google parent, Alphabet Inc and FaceBook. These two agendas can clearly not be compared on any scale.
 
4. Saudi Arabia actually also has a balancing budget problem, but is not selling a fraction of its oil asset for this purpose.
 
5. Nigeria has a poor record of privatization, or better put, cabalization of its assets.
 
6. Nigeria has several options to recover several times more in billions of dollars from looted funds and funds given to banks than the paltry $15 billion its asset sales can furnish. Asset sale should only be considered after these avenues have been exhausted. Saudi Arabia does not have that option for the desired funds it seeks.
 
7. While the Saudi plan was conceived by its government officials with careful thought and a long-term vision, Nigeria's knee-jerk proposal to sell its assets was dictated upon the government by its cabal.
 
8. While Saudi Arabia intends to utilize its proceeds in a sovereign fund, and to make investments globally, Nigeria's asset sale is for local use: to fund its budget and pay salaries. The result of this internal cash dump will only increase inflation.
 
9. Why and since when did Saudi Arabia become a template for Nigeria to stencil its development/recovery strategies?
 
And finally, what is the rational in comparing Nigeria to Saudi Arabia on a proposal the Saudis have not yet put into action and that has not yet proven valuable dividends? Records and examples of successes if such exist, of selling nations to the cabal, should be used for comparison and not plans that have not yet come to fruition.
 
We can compare for instance with the USA, its history of Robber Barons when the cabal owned it all and the labour union riots broke out; or the current situation of 99% and 1%, Wall street ownership of the bulk of the US economic opportunities. Similarly we can compare with the French revolution when the cabal owned it all and the statement attributed to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, “having nothing left to eat, we will eat the rich,” was made.
 
Dr. Peregrino Brimah ( Email: drbrimah@gmail.com ) reports.
 
*Photo Caption - Kemi Adeosun

 

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*Photo Caption - As seen.