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[ Masterweb Reports: Dr. Peregrino Brimah reports ] - The Nigerian government has revived the 80s foreign exchange market system; a hallmark of the Babangida economy. The Central Bank of Nigeria, CBN, challenged with a contracting economy headed to recession, in a partial announcement yesterday introduced the new policy of a flexible exchange rate regime to make foreign currencies more accessible, Nigeria more attractive for investors and attempt to bring down the exchange rate in the parallel market. 
 
While the CBN nullified the official exchange rate regime of N197/dollar, the apex bank failed to absolutely devalue the market as advised by local and foreign experts including ourselves, but opted to institute a flexible and multiple market model.
 
This model is identical to the second tier foreign exchange market system (SFEM) Babangida used to replace his predecessor, Buhari's austerity measures with limited forex allocations for "essential commodities," as has again so-far been repeated by Buhari for the first year of his second coming.
 
According to Godwin Emefiele, the apex bank’s Monetary Policy Committee, MPC voted unanimously to adopt the new SFEM model which will have two (multiple) levels: a subsidized level (presumably still the N197 rate) and a government officiated flexible level that responds to the market. 
 
The decision is to “retain a small window for funding critical transactions,” the central bank governor said.
 
First Tier for Masses, Second Tier for Cabal?
 
While the governor has not yet listed what the "critical transactions" are, it is easy to imagine that these will once again be the businesses and ventures of Nigeria's cabal.
 
The central bank governor this January promised Nigeria oligopolist benefactor billionaire Aliko Dangote "unfettered" access to "subsidized" dollars (official rate) for his private $14 billion refinery. Will such private projects of cabal be considered "critical transactions" and given subsidized dollars?
 
The masses have so far been deprived of all exchange rate subsidy with their last benefit, PMS previously imported with CBN N197 rate dollars, removed from essential or critical transactions and thrown to the parallel market, now to become the second tier rate. 
 
While small and medium enterprises, SMEs are the largest employers of labour (providing over 70% of jobs), there has been no access to preferred central bank dollars for small businesses. In the last three months Nigeria lost over 500,000 jobs due to the cabal/large industry preferential, selective forex policy murder of the small and middle businesses.
 
With all illegal advantages given to cabal including tax breaks, import waivers (with losses for Nigeria in the tune of N447 billion as the Senate just condemned), free land, gifting of assets, subsidized dollars and the like, the cabal/big industry ends up selling finished product and service to Nigeria at triple global cost averages: compare cement, mobile service, internet domain registration, internet service and all other products and utilities provided by the cabal.
 
As the central bank institutes SFEM, one will again watch to see who gets the subsidized dollar level and who gets the flexible market determined and determining second level. 
 
I will not hold my breath.
 
Dr. Peregrino Brimah ( Email: drbrimah@gmail.com ) reports.
 
*Photo Caption - Nigeria naira notes.

[ Masterweb Reports: Intersociety reports ] - (Onitsha Nigeria, 26th of May 2016)-The leadership of International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law (Intersociety) had two days ago (24th of May 2016) released the first part of our special public statement in which we expressed dismay, shock and alarm over “the gun-boat speed” with which Nigeria and Nigerians are arming courtesy of the G8 Countries and their allies including the EU as well as the Peoples Republic of China with steady supply and shipment of small arms and light weapons to the country through licit and illicit means. The link to the first part of our referenced publication is contained here: http://www.intersociety-ng.org/component/k2/item/137-arming-us-at-night--aiding-us-in-the-day.
 
Also internally, the authorities of the present federal civilian government under Gen Muhammadu Buhari have made matters worse since the middle of 2015 when it came on board. The embryonic dictatorial administration of Muhammadu Buhari has introduced and entrenched the corrupt version of constitutional and pluralistic democracy in the country. In all, State killings and terrorism are common and routine. Enforcement of law and order is utterly discriminatory. The secularity of the country is bastardized and no longer a national priority. Economy is in tatters. Economic policies are harsh and anti public driven. Naira notes have almost become “Mogadishu Latrine Toilet Papers”. Regime laziness, incompetence and incapacity have tripled and governance creativity is grounded at zero level. State borrowings are sourced from right, left and center; stomached recurrently and misapplied administratively.
 
Clannish and primordial interests have been promoted and upgraded to national interests, snowballing into “full northernization and Islamization policies and agendas”. Section 14 (3) of the 1999 Constitution directs that “thou shall not sectionalize and privatize national public offices, institutions and resources”; but President Muhammadu Buhari dares same and counter says “I shall sectionalize and Islamize federal public offices and institutions and nothing will happen”. Emergence of Gen Muhammadu Buhari as Nigeria’s sixth civilian President has circumstantially become a semblance of the rebellious emergence of an internal armed conflict rebel leader who conquers a national political territory. Supposedly constitutional and pluralistic democracy status of Nigeria has totally been displaced and replaced with a diarchy and ethno-religious oligarchy.

 
The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is now akin to military’s corrupted and bastardized “constitution”. Its provisions are acutely selective in application and enforcement. State energies and resources that ought to be channeled into the real and concrete governance of the country are now channeled into the Buhari’s policy of “State crushing” or State violence and terrorism. Judiciary is in quandary. Judges are now stampeded and presidentially threatened, using graft blackmail via EFCC and DSS unless they act according to presidential whims and caprices. Liberties are in chains. Citizens’ insecurity and other unsafe conditions arising from regime incompetence and violence have spiraled. Lawyers are now harassed and framed up for exercising their professional and constitutional rights of representing and defending the accused citizens particularly those tagged “regime enemies”. Constitutional liberties including fundamental human rights and custody rights are bastardized, corrupted and breached by the State.
 
Mainstream civil society leaders and rights activists in the country, majorly found in Lagos and Southwest no longer assert their independence and speak freely without being threatened and blackmailed. Those who dare to speak out end up retracting their dissent voices on account of nocturnal and direct threat-calls. A good number of them are threatened by the State and told to retract their dissent comments and retrace their steps or be faced the wrath of the State via the EFCC over goodies they received and invested from their “Lagos good old days” and “the 2015 project”. The ranks of organized labour and leading professional bodies in the country are not only broken, but also flooded with moles and government apologists. A clear case in point being the recent failed industrial strikes where attempts made by organized labour and CSO activists to wriggle themselves out of “Buharimania bondage” crashed irreparably.
 
To compound the above named federal governance tragedies in Nigeria, members of the G8 Countries, their allies and China have sped up their project of “arming Nigeria and Nigerians at night and coming to their aid with piecemeal development and humanitarian aids in the day”. Unlike their firm policy against China years ago over the latter’s abysmal human rights records, the named developed countries also encourage and support the regime anomalies under reference. For instance, Nigeria has just been forced by the G8 and the EU controlled IMF and World Bank to devalue its currency and effect oil subsidy removal in return for harsh loans that will end up in “recurrent expenditures and debt servicing” or piecemeal unproductive infrastructural maintenance.
 
This publication of ours, therefore, is properly timed; coinciding with the 42nd Summit of the G7 and its allies in Japan as well as “the one year in office of the administration of President Muhammadu Buhari”. We wish to clearly state that our firm belief in Nigeria of not present arrangement but Nigeria of all peoples with charter of equality, secularity, liberties, equitable and non-sectional sharing of political and security offices; non sectional and discriminatory protection of the citizens and enforcement of law and order; and balanced social and infrastructural development, etc, is the motivating force behind our advocacy activities. In the previous federal administrations since our inception in 2008, the same position was maintained. Where Nigeria of all inclusiveness, unity in diversity and ethno-religious secularism and demo-constitutional supremacy is not politically possible and achievable, then “national question and its answer” becomes inevitable and pacifist option. Our advocacy activities, therefore, are beyond who occupies the country’s seat of power or where he or she comes from.
 
Our major concern is the pedigree of such occupant and what he or she does in office. His or her pedigree matters a lot because “a rioter is bound to run a riotous affair” and a thinker and pacifist is bound to administer his or her people creatively and peacefully. We further wish to repeat our earlier statement that “dictatorship or tyranny emerges not only through the sole handiwork of a presiding individual, but as a result of failure of democratic forces and institutions to rise to the occasion during its early warning signals”. The greatest challenge facing and threatening the supposedly present democratic dispensation under Gen Muhammadu Buhari in Nigeria is that the mainstream democratic forces in Nigeria are instrumental to the emergence of the Buhari administration. It is therefore part of the law of nature that “one cannot eat one’s cake and have it at the same time”. Also “one cannot probate and reprobate”; “once saliva is spat, it can never be re-swallowed”.
 
Nigeria under the 12 months of the administration of Gen Muhammadu Buhari is not only hellish, but has also experienced escalated militarization or sharp increase in militarization of its polity. In Democratic Theory, “formidable democracies rarely go to war against themselves or against their external counterparts or opponents”, but under the present Buhari’s civilian administration, “State violence and terrorism” has become its cornerstone. This is worsened by the fact that Gen Buhari failed to avail himself the opportunity of purging himself of war mongering and violent approaches to issues of governance and State-citizen relationships through available classroom and non-classroom courses on issues of constitutionalism, democratic pluralism, political pluralism and tolerance, human rights, conflict resolution and rule of law.
 
Totality of these regime anomalies and tragedies has heightened tensions in Nigeria, snowballing into massive State and non-State arming. Presidentially, they have made the Presidency of Muhammadu Buhari “a quarantine presidency”. Other than reckless global trotting, the Presidency is now cocooned to “Aso Rock”, “Daura” and “core Northern Enclaves” and scared away from other strategic parts of the country. That is to say that even the Presidency too is gripped by the perception of insecurity owing to fears in the hands of the enemies made and enmity created in just 12 months, from right, left and center.
 
There are two reasons behind State’s application of coercive instruments such as small arms and light weapons: for public security and safety including safeguarding the country internally and externally from counter State actor and non-State actor aggressions; and for maintaining law and order through controlling and prevention of street, border, bureaucratic and cyber crimes; all within the confines of the Constitution, rule of law and constitutional liberties. But reverse is fundamentally the case under the Buhari administration.
 
When the State loses its legitimate capacities in these two directions through hostile or oppressive policies and conducts; regime incapacities and failures set in; resulting in aggressive resort to self-help and uncontrollable militancy. When the State closes or suppresses citizens’ alternatives to ventilate their angers against their government and its harsh policies and conducts in non-violent ways and when such State is perceived as democratically repressive and murderous; citizens take recourse to self-violent and self-arming.
 
In all, the dangerous level at which the Nigerian State under Gen Muhammadu Buhari is arming itself with “a balance of terror” response by private and group citizens has already put the country in negative front as Africa’s most illicitly armed State and possibly the world’s second most illicitly armed country after Afghanistan; a country credited with 10million illicit small arms and light weapons (SALWs) on average of one SALW for every four Afghans. This publication is to be continued and concluded in the next part (three).
 
Signed:
 
Emeka Umeagbalasi, Board Chairman
Mobile Line: +2348174090052
Email: info@intersociety-ng.org, emekaumeagbalasi@yahoo.co.uk
 
Barr Obianuju Joy Igboeli, Head, Civil Liberties & Rule of Law Program
Mobile Line: +2348034186332
 
Barr Chinwe Umeche, Head, Democracy & Good Governance Program
Mobile Line: +2347013238673
 
Website: www.intersociety-ng.org
 
*Photo Caption - As seen.

 
 

[ Masterweb Reports: Olalekan Waheed Adigun reports ] - Even before Nigerians went to their polling boots on March 28, 2015 objective polls could safely predict a victory from opposition candidate, General Muhammadu Buhari. Little wonder the spontaneous jubilation that greeted his victory even when counting is still on. One year after, Nigerians are not too certain as to whether they made the right choice.

Buhari’s first year in office as a democratically elected president is sure to come under intense reviews like his predecessors, but if he will get “fair” reviews is another matter altogether. In a period where one’s political perspective(s) is largely coloured by one’s religion or ethnic origin, scientific analyses of a presidential administration can be truly challenging.

Before we proceed, let us be quick to admit that this present writer was a volunteer for the Buhari’s campaign in 2015 and has no regret whatsoever on his decision. We are aware some people have stopped reading this article by our frank admission, but unperturbed we remain.

Let us also make it known to those who bother to continue reading our article that we, as much as possible, will take objective look at all the issues involved, our temptation(s) to be biased notwithstanding!

Buhari and his party, the All Progressives Congress (APC), campaigned largely on the platform of “Change”. Many Nigerians had thought that the “Change Mantra’ simply meant improvements in standards of living translating in upgraded socio-economic infrastructure, but soon found out that it is not necessarily so.

Several polls conducted before and after the 2015 elections show his approval soar, peaking into astronomical proportions. Not until recently did Buhari’s approval ratings reach an all-time low. In a poll by the Governance Advancement Initiative for Nigeria(GAIN), reveals that more Nigerians scored President Buhari low on his administration’s handling of the economy, power and fuel shortage. The same poll which puts his approval rating at 63 per cent in January now shows that the President has a little over 30 per cent in ratings among Nigerians. This only goes to show that all is not well, and this poll (even though one may have reservations about is methodology), needs to worry the President and the APC!

Of course, there are challenges for the administration. The president has corruption to contend with head on. He has had to cope with the rising incidences of Boko Haram insurgency in the North East which, according to a report by Al Jazeera , killed over 400 Nigerians in the first 39 days of Buhari’s administration. The rising agitation for Biafran independent state in the South East in addition to reported building or regrouping of militants in the South-South appear to be the on the front burner of challenges facing his administration.

Challenges, notwithstanding, Nigerians have many expectations from the retired General. He is expected to make policies to create jobs. They want him to reduce the cost of governance and corruption; they want him to assure Nigerians of security and created favorable environments for businesses to thrive including making the dollar equal to the naira! Facing challenges cannot an excuse for negligence in these duties.
Has the President been able to deliver even after one year? It does not appear that after three previous attempts at the presidency with one stint as military Head of State, President Buhari appears unprepared for governance. If not, how does one explain the fact that in about a year, the administration has no economic policy direction? How better does one describe the seven months search for the ‘Wise men” he appointed as ministers? Can anyone comprehend why it took so long to constitute an economic team?

Understandably, President Buhari defeated an unfriendly incumbent who will not help him settle easily in office, but will Buhari be the first to unseat a sitting president in Africa? How did they achieve ‘smoot’ transitions in Zambia or Malawi for instance?
Instead of the Buhari administration to continue to lament like Jeremiah, he simply should have set up a Change Management System (CMS) to reduce the shock that the sudden “Change” may have on public service and the political system. These would also have in a long way covered up the seeming unpreparedness of the General!

For instance, a good CMS would not only have taken care of changes at the strategic level (the Ministers) or the operational level (the Permanent Secretaries) but also at the tactical level (mostly junior Civil Servants) where corruption really starts from.
In parenthesis, it appears in several news reports that the introduction of the Treasury Single Account (TSA) have saved the country some millions or even billions of Naira from leakages. Good, but except these funds are invested in infrastructure or put in productive use(s), they are bound to be re-looted.  Please, which economic sense is there in recovering funds for others to loot?

Buhari’s unpreparedness manifests the most in the constitution of his Cabinet. An eagle view of those appointed shows the long wait for these people were just unnecessary. Some ministers are yet to justify the confidence imposed on them. Or put differently, some of them have not had their results speak for them. Kemi Adeosun in Finance; Fashola in Power and Works; Kayode Fayemi in Solid Minerals; or Lai Muhammed as Information Minister reveal a lot to rational minds of the potency of President Buhari’s first eleven. The results speak for themselves!
My choice of these ministers as case studies is deliberate. Apart from three of them coming from South-West geo-political zones and the fourth, Lai Muhammed, coming from my Local Government area in Kwara state these are persons I hold in high esteem in and out of public service. This will at least save us the “ethnicity” arguments that would have arisen. As far as this article is concerned, personal opinions have to take the back seat!

Recently, the Minister of State for Petroleum, Dr Ibe Kashikwu, while his boss was attending an anti-Corruption conference in London, did his utmost to convince Nigerians about their new reality. The reality today is that Nigerians will now officially purchase PMS or petrol at N145 per litre. This must have been a wonderful anniversary gift giving the hardships Nigerians have so far faced. Bad as this looks, the Labour movement’s reaction to the hike in fuel price was equally ridiculous.

To show how poor the government’s information management system was, senior government officials disagreed on what to call the new policy. Some said, like Lai Muhammed, that the administration had to increase the price because the treasury was empty and the government needed money to run the country. Others said, like the Vice president in his own words, that, “…the real issue is not a removal of subsidy. At $40 a barrel there isn’t much of a subsidy to remove.” Again, even if the Vice President has come out to say that “there isn’t much subsidy to remove” some of us still have the suspicion as to whether the so-called subsidies is not just another way some persons are cutting their own portion of the national cake. Some said it was subsidy removal since the government can no longer sustain the subsidy regime. If one is not confused on this, it is either one is sincerely ignorant or deliberately mischievous!

Still on the London conference. President Buhari on arrival was told of an unfortunate statement credited to the British Prime Minister, David Cameron, to the effect that Nigeria and Afghanistan were “possibly the two most corrupt countries in the world”. The statement which was not given to the press, but made in passing, somehow found its way into the media, and made big headlines back home in Nigeria.  As usual it took different interpretations.



For several hours, the unfortunate statement trended on social media and as usual, there was no response from the President until I saw the full video of the incident. The Prime Minister truly made the statement but was put immediately in order by the Archbishop of Canterbury who said (about President Buhari): “But this particular president is not corrupt... he’s trying very hard…” Let’s not go further into the politics of it, but one thing I like most about the whole matter is the President’s maturity in responding to Cameron’s comment that he had no use of anyone’s apologies on the incident, but for a refund of assets “stolen” from Nigeria now hidden in Western countries. If recovering these assets and more is the only thing the administration achieves, it will probably solve other challenges plaguing the nation. For now, there is still a long way to go!

Olalekan Waheed Adigun is a political risk analyst and independent political strategist. Email: olalekan@olalekanadigun.com, adgorwell@gmail.com.

*Photo Caption – President Muhammadu Buhari (Right); Vice President Osinbajo (LEFT).

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*Photo Caption - As seen.

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*Photo Caption - Front cover of CD.
 

 

[ Masterweb Reports: Intersociety reports ] - (Onitsha Nigeria, 24th of May 2016)-Following intensification of regime malfunctioning of the APC and Buhari led Presidency in Nigeria and ahead of this week’s G-7 Meeting in the Japanese City of Ise-Shima, we have considered it upper most important to expose the double standards of the named developed countries with respect to Nigeria and its affairs particularly under the present Buhari administration. We are deeply dismayed concerning the double-edged policies of the members of the Group of Seven Industrialized or Developed Countries (G-7) and their allies including the EU on one hand and Russia and China, on the other; towards the Federal Republic of Nigeria and its socio-political affairs.
 
The 42nd G-7 summit in Japan is featuring its seven core members of USA, UK, Canada, France, Italy, Germany and Japan, to be joined by the European Union. The world’s small arms and light weapons’ production markets are dominated by USA and Russia, followed by Germany, UK, Italy, China and other members of old west and east European blocs. Other non-western countries playing leading roles in global SALWs production markets are Brazil, Japan, North Korea, India, etc. Russia and USA alone are credited with hundreds of assault and automatic rifles of different models; likewise mortars, rockets, anti tank and personnel mines and grenades; all referred to as “Small Arms & Light Weapons (SALWs).
 
To the extent that Nigeria and Nigerians are armed at night and aided in the day through piecemeal humanitarian aids by the above named countries, is a height of diplomatic kill-and-bury and a clear return of the west’s atrocious double-standards foreign policies towards Africa and Asia in the 60s, 70s and 80s. These blundered foreign policies were also applied in the Africa’s Great Lakes Region in the 90s by the west; Russia and China to an extent, under proxy arming and proxy wars; snowballing into the Rwandan Genocide of 1994; killing almost one million people in three months.
 
The war mongering policies of the Buhari administration and its confrontational approaches to issues of democratic governance and its challenges have cumulatively heightened communal, tribal and ethno-religious tensions in Nigeria and facilitated fertile grounds for the countries named above; by themselves or through their proxies, to sell their small arms and light weapons (SALWs) at alarming speed and use the country as the latest rogue weapons’ basket of the West African sub-region.

 

 
It alarms and saddens us that Nigeria and Nigerians are arming and being armed at alarming level following intensification and entrenchment of anti people and anti democratic policies and conducts by the administration of President Muhammadu Buhari. From various recent scholarly and advocacy studies, Nigeria may mostly have become the world’s second most illicitly armed country after Afghanistan. The battered Republic of Afghanistan with January 2016 estimated population of 33million people is the world’s most illicitly armed country with 10million small arms and light weapons to its homicidal credit, on average of one illicit small arm and light weapon for every four Afghans.
 
It is credibly estimated that there are 4million-4.5million mostly illicit small arms and light weapons (SALWs) presently in circulation in Nigeria or over 400% spiral increase from estimated one million illicit SALWs in the country in 2000/2001. This simply means that out of every 45 Nigerians (using the country’s estimated 174million citizens); there is small arm and light weapon or SALW. While at least two million SALWs are believed to be in the hands of non-combatant civilians in Nigeria, one million may be in the hands of proliferated communal and States’ armed vigilante groups across the country. The remaining 1million-1.5million others may be in possession of violent non-State actor entities like the Fulani Janjaweed, northern politicians-oiled Boko Haram, Niger Delta Militants, violent politicians and die-hard street and syndicate criminal groups. These SALWs are illicitly sold to Nigerians, who bear and operate them without legitimate authorization by federal laws and authorities. Where laws of some States recognize them as in the case of “militant vigilantism”, such laws are inferior to federal laws and cannot stand the test of time.
 
The level of militancy in Nigeria presently is alarming and deafening and it is shocking that under the just 12 months of the Buhari administration, militancy and homicidal rates have risen to an apogee. We terribly fear that if nothing proactive and concrete is done to tame this genocidal trend, Nigeria may most likely snowball into “complex humanitarian emergencies”.
 
For clear understanding, complex humanitarian emergencies are earth-shaking social crisis that envelopes a political territory in which a large number of people are killed or die and suffer from war, disease, hunger and displacement owing to man-made disasters or afflictions. In complex humanitarian emergencies afflicting a large country like Nigeria with estimated 174million citizens, humanitarian crises so generated, will be far beyond the capacities of the UN and other humanitarian agencies. Complex humanitarian emergencies start from early warning to uncontrollable crisis stages and are fueled by proxy arming and proxy wars as well as “profiteers of violence” such as SALWs manufacturers and marketers from the G8 Countries and China and their local collaborators.
 
It is also estimated that over 25million bullets and cartridges of various models and types, using in powering the estimated 4million-4.5million SALWs in the country; are in circulation, on average of 5 cartridges per SALW. Other than credible independent and scholarly statistics on these SALWs and their propellers; official accounts from Nigeria’s securitization statistical records of the Nigeria Police Force or the National Bureau of Statistics are fundamentally unreliable, if not non-existent.

 
The recent account by the Presidential Committee on Small Arms to the effect that “60% of Small Arms & Light Weapons in Nigeria are locally manufactured” is fundamentally contentious, unscientific, unreliable and unverifiable. The stark reality is that 98% of small arms and light weapons in roguish and credible circulation in Nigeria are imported; and under licit and illicit circumstances. There are alarming licit and illicit arming going on in the country under the malfunctioning watch of the Buhari administration. That is to say that there is arming at dangerous speeds by State-actor and non-State actor entities in the country. In the area of State actor arming, the Federal Government through its Defense, Interior and NSA establishments; is arming the State at a dangerous speed.
 
The porosity of the State management of its armories and discriminatory enforcement of gun-control policies in Nigeria is also alarming; most especially whereby belligerent members of some ethnic nationalities like “Hausa-Fulani” found bearing automatic assault weapons without license are treated as untouchables while citizens of other ethnic nationalities like Igbo Ethnic Nationality who hardly bear single barreled guns under non-street crime circumstances, not to talk of assault rifles; are indiscriminately targeted and mass-murdered by the security agencies.
 
Another time-bomb speedily heading for explosion is the alarming rate of sub-State actor arming in Nigeria. The referenced sub-State actor or sub-national entity actor arming is undertaken by various States for the purpose of their “militant vigilantism” activities and other illicit political purposes. At the level of alarming non-State actor arming, there are civilian licit arming and civilian illicit arming; intra and inter communal illicit arming; and inter-tribal and inter-religious illicit arming as well as non-State actor armed groups and political actors’ arming. Both State actor and non-State actor procured arms (licit and illicit) in Nigeria are dominated by small arms and light weapons.
 
Licit State trade in small arms and light weapons is carried out between Nigeria and a number of world’s leading manufacturers of small arms and light weapons such as USA, China, Russia, UK, Canada, France, Germany and EU. This is facilitated through Nigeria’s international waters and aviations (as case may be). The Nigeria’s State arms trade is conducted through its ministries of defense and interior and the office of the National Security Adviser.
 
Illicit arms trade, on the other hand, is carried out using Nigeria’s southern and northern borders and such arms are commonly found in leading markets located in Lagos, Maiduguri, Kano, Onitsha and Aba. The cross-border sources of these small arms and light weapons are traced to two categories of sources of northern and southern destinations. While small arms dominate the southern destinations of Togo, Benin Republic, Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast; both small arms and light weapons are illicitly couriered in large quantity from northern destinations of Chad, Niger and Cameroon Republics; partly sourced from Libya, Somalia and Sudan.

 
All the illicit small arms and light weapons (SALWs) produced by the named developed countries found their way into Nigeria through third party or proxy means facilitated by the producer-countries. Some of them landed into Nigeria through their first country of use (i.e. Libya, Somalia, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, etc), while others landed directly from their virgin sources or countries of production (i.e. SALWs in the hands of Niger Delta militants, disbanded Nigeria’s Boko Haram, etc); yet some originate from State armories (i.e. SALWs in the hands of Fulani Janjaweed).
 
It is also very important to point out that the Republic of South Africa still parades the largest number of private military corporations or firms on African Continent; specializing in cross-border trading of mercenaries and sales agents for western countries’ bound illicit small arms and light weapons (SALWs) shipped and sold in Africa under “musketeers” (producers) and “profiteers” (marketers) arrangements. The two referenced parties are commonly referred to as “profiteers of violence”. South Africa is also the only African country to have possessed a nuclear weapon in the 80s and the first country on earth to disband same in early 90s.
 
In all, Government to Government trade in small arms and light weapons (SALWs) are classified as “licit arms trade”, while sale and shipment of same through illegal means are classified as “illicit arms trade”. Such arms can also be purchased illicitly or illegally and used licitly or legally. In the world over, a set of laws governing the use of arms, particularly small arms are classified under “mala prohibita” (laws with different contents and applications in different countries and cultures). This further means that while it is legally permissible for non-combatant citizens to carry certain weapons in a country like USA, it is legally forbidden to do so in another country like Nigeria. State to State trade in small arms and light weapons (SALWs) as well as their use is governed or regulated through sub-regional, regional and international treaties and customary international laws.
 
In Nigeria, procurement and use of small arms and light weapons at communal, inter-communal, tribal, inter-tribal, religious, inter-religious and group and inter-group levels (except for State sanctioned security purposes) are prohibited. At individual or private citizen’s level, procurement and use of high profile small arms and all categories of light weapons are inexcusably prohibited by law. But procurement and use of low profile small arms are allowed under license by relevant authorities of the Nigerian Security Agencies.
 
This is governed by the Firearms Arms Act of 2004. The Act categorizes bearable small arms into prohibited firearms and personal firearms. Any citizen can bear “personal firearms” (i.e. single or double barreled guns, pistols, pump action guns, etc) provided he or she is issued with a renewable license by the Inspector General of Police or through his or her principal subordinate. This is contained in Section 4 of the Act. The procurement and use of “prohibited firearms” (i.e. assault weapons such as A-K 47 guns, machine guns etc) by a citizen is conditioned to a presidential license. This is also contained in Section 3 of the Firearms Act of 2004. For war-like or anti-violent crimes control small arms and light weapons, the State security agencies are empowered by law to deploy them when necessary and under strict regulations. But in practice, these are observed in gross breach by concerned security establishments particularly the Nigeria Police Force.
 
For purpose of clear understanding, small arms and light weapons are weapons that can be carried by a single person, either for military or civilian use. They are commonly referred to as “SALWs” and are relatively cheap, available in abundance, highly portable, long lasting and easy to carry or operate. They range from pistols, assault rifles, machine guns, grenades, mortars to anti tank systems. By light weapons, they are referred to as weapons that are man-portable or transportable by light vehicles and that do not require much in terms of service and logistical back-up training. They comprise small caliber canons, light support weapons, combat grenades, anti-personnel mines, mortars, anti-tank weapons, anti-tank mines, etc.
 
Signed:
 
Emeka Umeagbalasi, Board Chairman
Mobile Line: +2348174090052
Email: info@intersociety-ng.org, emekaumeagbalasi@yahoo.co.uk
 
Barr Obianuju Joy Igboeli, Head, Civil Liberties & Rule of Law Program
Mobile Line: +2348034186332
 
Barr Chinwe Umeche, Head, Democracy & Good Governance Program
Mobile Line: +2347013238673
 
Website: www.intersociety-ng.org
 
*Photo Caption - As seen.

[ Masterweb Reports: Ihechukwu Njoku reports ] - On Sunday May 22, 2016, T.B. Joshua of the Synagogue Church Of All Nations (SCOAN), made some shocking revelations on his Emmanuel TV station concerning Nigeria and the world at large.  The ‘prophet’ spoke on many issues including the recent EgyptAir crash, African politics and agriculture, even warning of a terrorist attack in the United Kingdom.
 
He read out a transcript of the prophecies he had given during his New Year’s Crossover Service, highlighting particularly the national food scarcity. On each point read, he expanded further, detailing what Nigeria and Africa are to expect in the nearest future.
 
FOOD SCARCITY
 
“There will be large scale scarcity, shortage of food. As a state, country, continent, we have to go back to the farm to arrest, to alleviate the forthcoming situation”, he read. Further expanding on the details of the prophecy, he said, “It is only a ‘shortage’ that you are experiencing now; you have not experienced ‘large scale.’ ” Giving further insight,he proclaimed, “This one that I am saying now, ‘scarcity’, ‘large scale’, it's a proverb. Whatever you can do from now till December - all of your money you will use to buy food - you will not have enough to buy.”
 
Also Read => T. B. Joshua: True or False Prophet?
 
Advising those in the real-estate business he said, “If you are the type planning to build a house now, stop it for the mean time. If you are in the business of buying land, stop it for the mean time - look for another business. Stop it for the mean time until February next year. Use that money on the need of people now.”
 
Giving a sombre warning, he said, “I'm preparing you. Get ready; lager scale scarcity is coming!”
 
In the last few days, Nigerians have woken up to the stark reality of the rising food scarcity. Several reports were released on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday detailing the extent of the current national food woes. Tomato ebola, violence from fulani herdsmen, missed harvests and rising transportation costs have all been attributed as the cause of the food shortage and spiralling food prices.
 

On the rise of "tomato ebola", Kaduna state agriculture commissioner, Manzo Daniel, said: "This is only the beginning of a disaster if we don’t take drastic measures because the disease is fast spreading across the north.”
 
NIGERIA'S ECONOMY
 
On the economic plight Nigerians are facing, Joshua read from his beginning of year prophecies: “The president will do everything to reject devaluation of the naira – which is a good idea from a good leader. But there will be overwhelming pressure which he will not be able to resist. Nigeria, we are in a valley. The future is crying for help.”
 
Expanding on the ‘valley’, Joshua said: “I explained that we are in a valley but it is not the valley of the shadow of death. There is no snake or scorpion, it's different. When you are in the valley you will cry and cry but you will still get out of the valley.”
 
Also Read => T. B. Joshua: True or False Prophet?
 
“You have to continue to cut your coat according to your size. Don't just continue to spend your money on something that won't be able to help you. Spend your money on something that the whole world will be looking for - food, shelter.”
 
AFRICAN POLITICS
 
Moving on the political climate in Africa, Joshua noted: “African leaders should quickly arrest the political situation. 50% of counties that do elections, at least 45% of them will face crisis.  More African countries will be under siege by terrorists because of pros and cons in choosing leaders. Mishandling of electoral processes will create a conducive atmosphere for terrorists.”
 
UK TERROR WARNING
 
Joshua also claimed to have seen an attack in the United Kingdom. He said: “Pray for the United Kingdom like the railways, people, and crowds where people gather because I'm seeing some funny people in their country. But I am seeing with prayer and proper security it will be avoided but there will be a sign or trace that this happened but it will not happen the way that it was supposed to have happened but they will know that something happened there.”
 
The day following Joshua's warning, 27 schools had to close nationwide in the UK due to a bomb scare. Apparently, anonymous repeated calls were made to each school, warning of explosive devices. The callers told the receptionists that "if the school called the police the bomb would be detonated immediately". The threats continued on Tuesday with more schools being evacuated.
 
ANOTHER PLANE INCIDENT
 
On the Egypt Air crash, Joshua said: “Egypt has happened and the other one I am seeing is very close and I am going to say the country and the place. This one that I am seeing now is bigger than the one that happened. This one is very close now.
Every airport security must be tight. You should be careful who you employ to fly as a pilot or flight attendant because they too will apply for this kind of job and they will be patient enough; if it is one or two years they will be patient until the achieve their goal.”
 
The cleric dishes out national and international predictions on a regular basis, using the platform of his Sunday services, broadcast live on his Emmanuel TV.
 
While some embrace his prophecies, upholding him as an end-time prophet, others are highly skeptical. Despite mixed reactions to his prophecies and purported miracles, Joshua has a huge following worldwide, with his YouTube Channel having over 350,000 subscribers and 2.2million following him on Facebook.  
 
Ihechukwu Njoku ( Email: chuk.njoku@gmail.com ) reports.
 
*Photo Caption - T. B. Joshua

[ Masterweb Reports ] - Masterweb developed this page in a bid to daily keep you abreast of Nigerian and world news events so you are well informed and do not miss any news occurrence in Nigeria and around the globe. Most Nigerian newspapers are updated daily. Nigeria and World News Headlines are uptaded every ten minutes as events unfold in the world. 
 
This news page is a useful tool to both Nigerians and everybody irrespective of his or her nationality and country of residence in keeping abreast of current news around the world. We have millions of satisfied users of this page, some of who have made financial contributions in supporting the page and its component link sections.  
 
Use the links below to update yourself of today's news events - 
 
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To adequately keep abreast of Nigerian and world news events daily, below is a guide to follow so you do not miss any single news event in Nigeria and around the globe. This means that the news guide is important to both Nigerians and everybody irrespective of his or her nationality and country of residence.
 
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6. STEP SIX - Revisit our Newspapers Section ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/paperfrmes.html ) before bedtime for late updates and/or following day's early updates by Masterweb and Nigerian newspapers.
 
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7. YOU ARE NOW FULLY INFORMED FOR THE DAY - If you follow the guide above, you will never miss any news event in the world. This means that you will be fully equipped to engage in any news or current affairs discussion anywhere and any place in the world. Best of luck!
 
8. ALL NEWS LINKS ABOVE ORGANIZED ON ONE PAGE - Masterweb has put together a unique page that has all the news links above that you need to adequately keep abreast of Nigerian and world news events - Click here to go to the page ( the Link or URL is http://www.nigeriamasterweb.com/NeverMissNewsEvents.html ).
 
*Photo Caption - As seen.

[ Masterweb Reports: Olalekan Waheed Adigun reports ] - These are definitely not the best of times for the People’s Democratic Party (PDP). The event of Saturday, 21 May 2016 only confirms the predictions that some of us have made about the party in the past. The party obviously is not prepared for its new role as an opposition party. Except one is either ridiculously optimistic or simply mischievous, the crisis some of us have predicted in the past months since the PDP was defeated in March 2015 came to light on Saturday.
 
I remember wondering if PDP lost it thinking cap to theft when it appointed ex-Borno Governor, Ali Modu Sherriff as acting National Chairman some month ago. I equally remember how some of the party’s supporters “jubilated” at the “strategic decision”. They told us that he is the man to help defeat the All Progressives Congress (APC) in the North East. They suddenly found nothing “linking” him to Boko Haram. Some of these supporters were ready to fight tooth and nail anyone who dares touch the “anointed” Sherriff. His sins are forgiven as far as these ones are concerned until what will later befall ‘our great party’.
 
Life can be funny sometimes. While the supporters of Manchester United were busy celebrating their victory over Crystal Palace on their FA Cup victory, their manager, Luis van Gaal, knew he was living on borrowed time. One can get sacked for winning, not minding the fact that some managers in the same league have kept their jobs even though they are not turning out the trophies. Sherriff’s offence was that he attempted to elongate his tenure to the displeasure of his bosses or the “owners” of the party. Like van Gaal, Sherriff “won” the only election he supervised for PDP which is the Rivers re-run.
 
Sherriff himself will not let go easily. He simply called a press conference in a Port Harcourt hotel to announce a postponement of the convention citing a recent court ruling barring the event from holding. The party chief who must have depended on his lieutenants in the National Working Committee (NWC) was later to find out that he was all alone all along.
 
After making the announcement with him and other NWC members staging a walkout, Uche Secondus, (deputy national chairman of the party) the same man Sherriff took over from some months ago was on ground to “represent” his “boss”. The party at the point nominated former governor of Kaduna, Senator Ahmed Makarfi. What a loyal deputy!
 
If there were intrigues playing out in the Port Harcourt “faction” of the party, the politicians that gathered under what I like to call the Abuja “faction” did not hide their hatred for Sherriff. In fact, the group which appointed former Deputy Senate President, Senator Ibrahim Mantu, as chairman, applauded the decision of the Port Harcourt faction to “sack” Sherriff as the party chair. For the Abuja faction the main objectives “…have been achieved because we wanted a leadership that is credible, a leadership that will emerge through a constitutional process.” How then has he been working in the midst of his known and unknown enemies?
 
Perhaps, Sherriff is either overestimating the PDP from what he knew about the party about 16 years ago or underestimated the power of the new forces in the party to rise against him. I say this because, since Sherriff was governor of Borno state under the defunct All Nigerian Peoples Party (ANPP), he probably envied the “largest party in Africa.” He must have admired the fact that the PDP had more national outlook than his party whose influence starts from the North West and ends in the North East at its very best as against the PDP whose umbrella spreads across all the geo-political zones.
 
He probably did not figure in the fact that things have not remained the same for the party since President Goodluck Jonathan became the President and its leader. The party’s influence in the North as waned significantly afterwards. The party is now controlled by tribal warlords, religious chieftains and “our son” syndrome. It is no longer the national party most people, including Sherriff, know. The governors of the party are many based in the South especially the South-South and South-East geo-political zones. Technically speaking, the chairman who has no base in these power blocs is like building something on nothing and expecting it to stand. Since Sherriff is not ‘our son’, and he dared to have an ambition that negates those of the party bosses, the gang up against him in Garden City is understandable.
 
One of those who earlier supported him to be chairman, Ekiti State Governor Ayo Fayose, speaking through his spokesman, Lere Olayinka, said “I supported Senator Ali Modu Sheriff in good conscience. But when it became obvious that his continuous stay in office as the National Chairman will jeopardize the collective interest of the party, I had no option than to support his removal.” Again, with friends like Fayose, one needs to watch his back carefully!
 
Conflict management, interest articulation and political communications are important functions of every political system. The PDP as a political party needs to be more aware of these functions if it intends to perform in opposition. On this, I say, welcome to the real world!
 
Olalekan Waheed Adigun is a political risk analyst and independent political strategist. Email: olalekan@olalekanadigun.com, adgorwell@gmail.com
 
*Photo Caption - PDP logo

 

Masterweb Reports ] - Masterweb developed this page in a bid to daily keep you abreast of Nigerian and world news events so you are well informed and do not miss any news occurrence in Nigeria and around the globe. Most Nigerian newspapers are updated daily. Nigeria and World News Headlines are uptaded every ten minutes as events unfold in the world. 
 
This news page is a useful tool to both Nigerians and everybody irrespective of his or her nationality and country of residence in keeping abreast of current news around the world. We have millions of satisfied users of this page, some of who have made financial contributions in supporting the page and its component link sections.  
 
Use the links below to update yourself of today's news events - 
 
=> Click To Read Nigerian Newspapers
 
=> Click To Read Nigerian News Headlines
 
=> Click To Read World News Headlines
 
=> Click To Read Nigeria Radio & TV News
 
=> Click To Read World Radio & TV News
 
To adequately keep abreast of Nigerian and world news events daily, below is a guide to follow so you do not miss any single news event in Nigeria and around the globe. This means that the news guide is important to both Nigerians and everybody irrespective of his or her nationality and country of residence.
 
STEPS TO FOLLOW NOT TO MISS ANY SINGLE NEWS ITEM
 
1. STEP ONE - Start-off by subscribing to Masterweb RSS News Feed - This is a one time action. Subscription to Masterweb RSS News Feed allows for the automatic download of our news updates to your computer - that way Masterweb news updates come to you automatically. Click here to subscribe to Masterweb RSS News Feed
 
_______
 
2. STEP TWO - Start the day by visiting our Newspapers Section ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/paperfrmes.html ) and read Nigerian and world news from different sources including Nigerian newspapers.
 
_______
 
3. STEP THREE - Visit both our Nigeria News Headlines ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/NigeriaNewsHeadlines.html/ ) and World News Headlines ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/WorldNewsHeadlines.html/ ) several times (up to 12 times) daily as the pages are updated every 45 minutes. During a visit, if the news is not updated, hit the F1 key on your keyboard to refresh the page for the latest news update.
 
_______
 
4. STEP FOUR - Check out what are on radio and TV in Nigeria and the world by visiting Nigeria Radio & TV News and World Radio & TV News
 
_______
 
5. STEP FIVE - Check out what our news contributors may have posted for the day at our Citizen News ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/blog/ ) and Masterweb Reports Section ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/Masterweb/ )
 
_______
 
6. STEP SIX - Revisit our Newspapers Section ( www.nigeriamasterweb.com/paperfrmes.html ) before bedtime for late updates and/or following day's early updates by Masterweb and Nigerian newspapers.
 
_______
 
7. YOU ARE NOW FULLY INFORMED FOR THE DAY - If you follow the guide above, you will never miss any news event in the world. This means that you will be fully equipped to engage in any news or current affairs discussion anywhere and any place in the world. Best of luck!
 
8. ALL NEWS LINKS ABOVE ORGANIZED ON ONE PAGE - Masterweb has put together a unique page that has all the news links above that you need to adequately keep abreast of Nigerian and world news events - Click here to go to the page ( the Link or URL is http://www.nigeriamasterweb.com/NeverMissNewsEvents.html ).
 
*Photo Caption - As seen.