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[ Masterweb Reports: Intersociety reports ] - (Onitsha Nigeria, 26th of May 2016)-The leadership of International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law (Intersociety) had two days ago (24th of May 2016) released the first part of our special public statement in which we expressed dismay, shock and alarm over “the gun-boat speed” with which Nigeria and Nigerians are arming courtesy of the G8 Countries and their allies including the EU as well as the Peoples Republic of China with steady supply and shipment of small arms and light weapons to the country through licit and illicit means. The link to the first part of our referenced publication is contained here:
Also internally, the authorities of the present federal civilian government under Gen Muhammadu Buhari have made matters worse since the middle of 2015 when it came on board. The embryonic dictatorial administration of Muhammadu Buhari has introduced and entrenched the corrupt version of constitutional and pluralistic democracy in the country. In all, State killings and terrorism are common and routine. Enforcement of law and order is utterly discriminatory. The secularity of the country is bastardized and no longer a national priority. Economy is in tatters. Economic policies are harsh and anti public driven. Naira notes have almost become “Mogadishu Latrine Toilet Papers”. Regime laziness, incompetence and incapacity have tripled and governance creativity is grounded at zero level. State borrowings are sourced from right, left and center; stomached recurrently and misapplied administratively.
Clannish and primordial interests have been promoted and upgraded to national interests, snowballing into “full northernization and Islamization policies and agendas”. Section 14 (3) of the 1999 Constitution directs that “thou shall not sectionalize and privatize national public offices, institutions and resources”; but President Muhammadu Buhari dares same and counter says “I shall sectionalize and Islamize federal public offices and institutions and nothing will happen”. Emergence of Gen Muhammadu Buhari as Nigeria’s sixth civilian President has circumstantially become a semblance of the rebellious emergence of an internal armed conflict rebel leader who conquers a national political territory. Supposedly constitutional and pluralistic democracy status of Nigeria has totally been displaced and replaced with a diarchy and ethno-religious oligarchy.

The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is now akin to military’s corrupted and bastardized “constitution”. Its provisions are acutely selective in application and enforcement. State energies and resources that ought to be channeled into the real and concrete governance of the country are now channeled into the Buhari’s policy of “State crushing” or State violence and terrorism. Judiciary is in quandary. Judges are now stampeded and presidentially threatened, using graft blackmail via EFCC and DSS unless they act according to presidential whims and caprices. Liberties are in chains. Citizens’ insecurity and other unsafe conditions arising from regime incompetence and violence have spiraled. Lawyers are now harassed and framed up for exercising their professional and constitutional rights of representing and defending the accused citizens particularly those tagged “regime enemies”. Constitutional liberties including fundamental human rights and custody rights are bastardized, corrupted and breached by the State.
Mainstream civil society leaders and rights activists in the country, majorly found in Lagos and Southwest no longer assert their independence and speak freely without being threatened and blackmailed. Those who dare to speak out end up retracting their dissent voices on account of nocturnal and direct threat-calls. A good number of them are threatened by the State and told to retract their dissent comments and retrace their steps or be faced the wrath of the State via the EFCC over goodies they received and invested from their “Lagos good old days” and “the 2015 project”. The ranks of organized labour and leading professional bodies in the country are not only broken, but also flooded with moles and government apologists. A clear case in point being the recent failed industrial strikes where attempts made by organized labour and CSO activists to wriggle themselves out of “Buharimania bondage” crashed irreparably.
To compound the above named federal governance tragedies in Nigeria, members of the G8 Countries, their allies and China have sped up their project of “arming Nigeria and Nigerians at night and coming to their aid with piecemeal development and humanitarian aids in the day”. Unlike their firm policy against China years ago over the latter’s abysmal human rights records, the named developed countries also encourage and support the regime anomalies under reference. For instance, Nigeria has just been forced by the G8 and the EU controlled IMF and World Bank to devalue its currency and effect oil subsidy removal in return for harsh loans that will end up in “recurrent expenditures and debt servicing” or piecemeal unproductive infrastructural maintenance.
This publication of ours, therefore, is properly timed; coinciding with the 42nd Summit of the G7 and its allies in Japan as well as “the one year in office of the administration of President Muhammadu Buhari”. We wish to clearly state that our firm belief in Nigeria of not present arrangement but Nigeria of all peoples with charter of equality, secularity, liberties, equitable and non-sectional sharing of political and security offices; non sectional and discriminatory protection of the citizens and enforcement of law and order; and balanced social and infrastructural development, etc, is the motivating force behind our advocacy activities. In the previous federal administrations since our inception in 2008, the same position was maintained. Where Nigeria of all inclusiveness, unity in diversity and ethno-religious secularism and demo-constitutional supremacy is not politically possible and achievable, then “national question and its answer” becomes inevitable and pacifist option. Our advocacy activities, therefore, are beyond who occupies the country’s seat of power or where he or she comes from.
Our major concern is the pedigree of such occupant and what he or she does in office. His or her pedigree matters a lot because “a rioter is bound to run a riotous affair” and a thinker and pacifist is bound to administer his or her people creatively and peacefully. We further wish to repeat our earlier statement that “dictatorship or tyranny emerges not only through the sole handiwork of a presiding individual, but as a result of failure of democratic forces and institutions to rise to the occasion during its early warning signals”. The greatest challenge facing and threatening the supposedly present democratic dispensation under Gen Muhammadu Buhari in Nigeria is that the mainstream democratic forces in Nigeria are instrumental to the emergence of the Buhari administration. It is therefore part of the law of nature that “one cannot eat one’s cake and have it at the same time”. Also “one cannot probate and reprobate”; “once saliva is spat, it can never be re-swallowed”.
Nigeria under the 12 months of the administration of Gen Muhammadu Buhari is not only hellish, but has also experienced escalated militarization or sharp increase in militarization of its polity. In Democratic Theory, “formidable democracies rarely go to war against themselves or against their external counterparts or opponents”, but under the present Buhari’s civilian administration, “State violence and terrorism” has become its cornerstone. This is worsened by the fact that Gen Buhari failed to avail himself the opportunity of purging himself of war mongering and violent approaches to issues of governance and State-citizen relationships through available classroom and non-classroom courses on issues of constitutionalism, democratic pluralism, political pluralism and tolerance, human rights, conflict resolution and rule of law.
Totality of these regime anomalies and tragedies has heightened tensions in Nigeria, snowballing into massive State and non-State arming. Presidentially, they have made the Presidency of Muhammadu Buhari “a quarantine presidency”. Other than reckless global trotting, the Presidency is now cocooned to “Aso Rock”, “Daura” and “core Northern Enclaves” and scared away from other strategic parts of the country. That is to say that even the Presidency too is gripped by the perception of insecurity owing to fears in the hands of the enemies made and enmity created in just 12 months, from right, left and center.
There are two reasons behind State’s application of coercive instruments such as small arms and light weapons: for public security and safety including safeguarding the country internally and externally from counter State actor and non-State actor aggressions; and for maintaining law and order through controlling and prevention of street, border, bureaucratic and cyber crimes; all within the confines of the Constitution, rule of law and constitutional liberties. But reverse is fundamentally the case under the Buhari administration.
When the State loses its legitimate capacities in these two directions through hostile or oppressive policies and conducts; regime incapacities and failures set in; resulting in aggressive resort to self-help and uncontrollable militancy. When the State closes or suppresses citizens’ alternatives to ventilate their angers against their government and its harsh policies and conducts in non-violent ways and when such State is perceived as democratically repressive and murderous; citizens take recourse to self-violent and self-arming.
In all, the dangerous level at which the Nigerian State under Gen Muhammadu Buhari is arming itself with “a balance of terror” response by private and group citizens has already put the country in negative front as Africa’s most illicitly armed State and possibly the world’s second most illicitly armed country after Afghanistan; a country credited with 10million illicit small arms and light weapons (SALWs) on average of one SALW for every four Afghans. This publication is to be continued and concluded in the next part (three).
Emeka Umeagbalasi, Board Chairman
Mobile Line: +2348174090052
Barr Obianuju Joy Igboeli, Head, Civil Liberties & Rule of Law Program
Mobile Line: +2348034186332
Barr Chinwe Umeche, Head, Democracy & Good Governance Program
Mobile Line: +2347013238673
*Photo Caption - As seen.


[ Masterweb Reports: Intersociety reports ] - (Onitsha Nigeria, 24th of May 2016)-Following intensification of regime malfunctioning of the APC and Buhari led Presidency in Nigeria and ahead of this week’s G-7 Meeting in the Japanese City of Ise-Shima, we have considered it upper most important to expose the double standards of the named developed countries with respect to Nigeria and its affairs particularly under the present Buhari administration. We are deeply dismayed concerning the double-edged policies of the members of the Group of Seven Industrialized or Developed Countries (G-7) and their allies including the EU on one hand and Russia and China, on the other; towards the Federal Republic of Nigeria and its socio-political affairs.
The 42nd G-7 summit in Japan is featuring its seven core members of USA, UK, Canada, France, Italy, Germany and Japan, to be joined by the European Union. The world’s small arms and light weapons’ production markets are dominated by USA and Russia, followed by Germany, UK, Italy, China and other members of old west and east European blocs. Other non-western countries playing leading roles in global SALWs production markets are Brazil, Japan, North Korea, India, etc. Russia and USA alone are credited with hundreds of assault and automatic rifles of different models; likewise mortars, rockets, anti tank and personnel mines and grenades; all referred to as “Small Arms & Light Weapons (SALWs).
To the extent that Nigeria and Nigerians are armed at night and aided in the day through piecemeal humanitarian aids by the above named countries, is a height of diplomatic kill-and-bury and a clear return of the west’s atrocious double-standards foreign policies towards Africa and Asia in the 60s, 70s and 80s. These blundered foreign policies were also applied in the Africa’s Great Lakes Region in the 90s by the west; Russia and China to an extent, under proxy arming and proxy wars; snowballing into the Rwandan Genocide of 1994; killing almost one million people in three months.
The war mongering policies of the Buhari administration and its confrontational approaches to issues of democratic governance and its challenges have cumulatively heightened communal, tribal and ethno-religious tensions in Nigeria and facilitated fertile grounds for the countries named above; by themselves or through their proxies, to sell their small arms and light weapons (SALWs) at alarming speed and use the country as the latest rogue weapons’ basket of the West African sub-region.


It alarms and saddens us that Nigeria and Nigerians are arming and being armed at alarming level following intensification and entrenchment of anti people and anti democratic policies and conducts by the administration of President Muhammadu Buhari. From various recent scholarly and advocacy studies, Nigeria may mostly have become the world’s second most illicitly armed country after Afghanistan. The battered Republic of Afghanistan with January 2016 estimated population of 33million people is the world’s most illicitly armed country with 10million small arms and light weapons to its homicidal credit, on average of one illicit small arm and light weapon for every four Afghans.
It is credibly estimated that there are 4million-4.5million mostly illicit small arms and light weapons (SALWs) presently in circulation in Nigeria or over 400% spiral increase from estimated one million illicit SALWs in the country in 2000/2001. This simply means that out of every 45 Nigerians (using the country’s estimated 174million citizens); there is small arm and light weapon or SALW. While at least two million SALWs are believed to be in the hands of non-combatant civilians in Nigeria, one million may be in the hands of proliferated communal and States’ armed vigilante groups across the country. The remaining 1million-1.5million others may be in possession of violent non-State actor entities like the Fulani Janjaweed, northern politicians-oiled Boko Haram, Niger Delta Militants, violent politicians and die-hard street and syndicate criminal groups. These SALWs are illicitly sold to Nigerians, who bear and operate them without legitimate authorization by federal laws and authorities. Where laws of some States recognize them as in the case of “militant vigilantism”, such laws are inferior to federal laws and cannot stand the test of time.
The level of militancy in Nigeria presently is alarming and deafening and it is shocking that under the just 12 months of the Buhari administration, militancy and homicidal rates have risen to an apogee. We terribly fear that if nothing proactive and concrete is done to tame this genocidal trend, Nigeria may most likely snowball into “complex humanitarian emergencies”.
For clear understanding, complex humanitarian emergencies are earth-shaking social crisis that envelopes a political territory in which a large number of people are killed or die and suffer from war, disease, hunger and displacement owing to man-made disasters or afflictions. In complex humanitarian emergencies afflicting a large country like Nigeria with estimated 174million citizens, humanitarian crises so generated, will be far beyond the capacities of the UN and other humanitarian agencies. Complex humanitarian emergencies start from early warning to uncontrollable crisis stages and are fueled by proxy arming and proxy wars as well as “profiteers of violence” such as SALWs manufacturers and marketers from the G8 Countries and China and their local collaborators.
It is also estimated that over 25million bullets and cartridges of various models and types, using in powering the estimated 4million-4.5million SALWs in the country; are in circulation, on average of 5 cartridges per SALW. Other than credible independent and scholarly statistics on these SALWs and their propellers; official accounts from Nigeria’s securitization statistical records of the Nigeria Police Force or the National Bureau of Statistics are fundamentally unreliable, if not non-existent.

The recent account by the Presidential Committee on Small Arms to the effect that “60% of Small Arms & Light Weapons in Nigeria are locally manufactured” is fundamentally contentious, unscientific, unreliable and unverifiable. The stark reality is that 98% of small arms and light weapons in roguish and credible circulation in Nigeria are imported; and under licit and illicit circumstances. There are alarming licit and illicit arming going on in the country under the malfunctioning watch of the Buhari administration. That is to say that there is arming at dangerous speeds by State-actor and non-State actor entities in the country. In the area of State actor arming, the Federal Government through its Defense, Interior and NSA establishments; is arming the State at a dangerous speed.
The porosity of the State management of its armories and discriminatory enforcement of gun-control policies in Nigeria is also alarming; most especially whereby belligerent members of some ethnic nationalities like “Hausa-Fulani” found bearing automatic assault weapons without license are treated as untouchables while citizens of other ethnic nationalities like Igbo Ethnic Nationality who hardly bear single barreled guns under non-street crime circumstances, not to talk of assault rifles; are indiscriminately targeted and mass-murdered by the security agencies.
Another time-bomb speedily heading for explosion is the alarming rate of sub-State actor arming in Nigeria. The referenced sub-State actor or sub-national entity actor arming is undertaken by various States for the purpose of their “militant vigilantism” activities and other illicit political purposes. At the level of alarming non-State actor arming, there are civilian licit arming and civilian illicit arming; intra and inter communal illicit arming; and inter-tribal and inter-religious illicit arming as well as non-State actor armed groups and political actors’ arming. Both State actor and non-State actor procured arms (licit and illicit) in Nigeria are dominated by small arms and light weapons.
Licit State trade in small arms and light weapons is carried out between Nigeria and a number of world’s leading manufacturers of small arms and light weapons such as USA, China, Russia, UK, Canada, France, Germany and EU. This is facilitated through Nigeria’s international waters and aviations (as case may be). The Nigeria’s State arms trade is conducted through its ministries of defense and interior and the office of the National Security Adviser.
Illicit arms trade, on the other hand, is carried out using Nigeria’s southern and northern borders and such arms are commonly found in leading markets located in Lagos, Maiduguri, Kano, Onitsha and Aba. The cross-border sources of these small arms and light weapons are traced to two categories of sources of northern and southern destinations. While small arms dominate the southern destinations of Togo, Benin Republic, Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast; both small arms and light weapons are illicitly couriered in large quantity from northern destinations of Chad, Niger and Cameroon Republics; partly sourced from Libya, Somalia and Sudan.

All the illicit small arms and light weapons (SALWs) produced by the named developed countries found their way into Nigeria through third party or proxy means facilitated by the producer-countries. Some of them landed into Nigeria through their first country of use (i.e. Libya, Somalia, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, etc), while others landed directly from their virgin sources or countries of production (i.e. SALWs in the hands of Niger Delta militants, disbanded Nigeria’s Boko Haram, etc); yet some originate from State armories (i.e. SALWs in the hands of Fulani Janjaweed).
It is also very important to point out that the Republic of South Africa still parades the largest number of private military corporations or firms on African Continent; specializing in cross-border trading of mercenaries and sales agents for western countries’ bound illicit small arms and light weapons (SALWs) shipped and sold in Africa under “musketeers” (producers) and “profiteers” (marketers) arrangements. The two referenced parties are commonly referred to as “profiteers of violence”. South Africa is also the only African country to have possessed a nuclear weapon in the 80s and the first country on earth to disband same in early 90s.
In all, Government to Government trade in small arms and light weapons (SALWs) are classified as “licit arms trade”, while sale and shipment of same through illegal means are classified as “illicit arms trade”. Such arms can also be purchased illicitly or illegally and used licitly or legally. In the world over, a set of laws governing the use of arms, particularly small arms are classified under “mala prohibita” (laws with different contents and applications in different countries and cultures). This further means that while it is legally permissible for non-combatant citizens to carry certain weapons in a country like USA, it is legally forbidden to do so in another country like Nigeria. State to State trade in small arms and light weapons (SALWs) as well as their use is governed or regulated through sub-regional, regional and international treaties and customary international laws.
In Nigeria, procurement and use of small arms and light weapons at communal, inter-communal, tribal, inter-tribal, religious, inter-religious and group and inter-group levels (except for State sanctioned security purposes) are prohibited. At individual or private citizen’s level, procurement and use of high profile small arms and all categories of light weapons are inexcusably prohibited by law. But procurement and use of low profile small arms are allowed under license by relevant authorities of the Nigerian Security Agencies.
This is governed by the Firearms Arms Act of 2004. The Act categorizes bearable small arms into prohibited firearms and personal firearms. Any citizen can bear “personal firearms” (i.e. single or double barreled guns, pistols, pump action guns, etc) provided he or she is issued with a renewable license by the Inspector General of Police or through his or her principal subordinate. This is contained in Section 4 of the Act. The procurement and use of “prohibited firearms” (i.e. assault weapons such as A-K 47 guns, machine guns etc) by a citizen is conditioned to a presidential license. This is also contained in Section 3 of the Firearms Act of 2004. For war-like or anti-violent crimes control small arms and light weapons, the State security agencies are empowered by law to deploy them when necessary and under strict regulations. But in practice, these are observed in gross breach by concerned security establishments particularly the Nigeria Police Force.
For purpose of clear understanding, small arms and light weapons are weapons that can be carried by a single person, either for military or civilian use. They are commonly referred to as “SALWs” and are relatively cheap, available in abundance, highly portable, long lasting and easy to carry or operate. They range from pistols, assault rifles, machine guns, grenades, mortars to anti tank systems. By light weapons, they are referred to as weapons that are man-portable or transportable by light vehicles and that do not require much in terms of service and logistical back-up training. They comprise small caliber canons, light support weapons, combat grenades, anti-personnel mines, mortars, anti-tank weapons, anti-tank mines, etc.
Emeka Umeagbalasi, Board Chairman
Mobile Line: +2348174090052
Barr Obianuju Joy Igboeli, Head, Civil Liberties & Rule of Law Program
Mobile Line: +2348034186332
Barr Chinwe Umeche, Head, Democracy & Good Governance Program
Mobile Line: +2347013238673
*Photo Caption - As seen.

[ Masterweb Reports: Olalekan Waheed Adigun reports ] - These are definitely not the best of times for the People’s Democratic Party (PDP). The event of Saturday, 21 May 2016 only confirms the predictions that some of us have made about the party in the past. The party obviously is not prepared for its new role as an opposition party. Except one is either ridiculously optimistic or simply mischievous, the crisis some of us have predicted in the past months since the PDP was defeated in March 2015 came to light on Saturday.
I remember wondering if PDP lost it thinking cap to theft when it appointed ex-Borno Governor, Ali Modu Sherriff as acting National Chairman some month ago. I equally remember how some of the party’s supporters “jubilated” at the “strategic decision”. They told us that he is the man to help defeat the All Progressives Congress (APC) in the North East. They suddenly found nothing “linking” him to Boko Haram. Some of these supporters were ready to fight tooth and nail anyone who dares touch the “anointed” Sherriff. His sins are forgiven as far as these ones are concerned until what will later befall ‘our great party’.
Life can be funny sometimes. While the supporters of Manchester United were busy celebrating their victory over Crystal Palace on their FA Cup victory, their manager, Luis van Gaal, knew he was living on borrowed time. One can get sacked for winning, not minding the fact that some managers in the same league have kept their jobs even though they are not turning out the trophies. Sherriff’s offence was that he attempted to elongate his tenure to the displeasure of his bosses or the “owners” of the party. Like van Gaal, Sherriff “won” the only election he supervised for PDP which is the Rivers re-run.
Sherriff himself will not let go easily. He simply called a press conference in a Port Harcourt hotel to announce a postponement of the convention citing a recent court ruling barring the event from holding. The party chief who must have depended on his lieutenants in the National Working Committee (NWC) was later to find out that he was all alone all along.
After making the announcement with him and other NWC members staging a walkout, Uche Secondus, (deputy national chairman of the party) the same man Sherriff took over from some months ago was on ground to “represent” his “boss”. The party at the point nominated former governor of Kaduna, Senator Ahmed Makarfi. What a loyal deputy!
If there were intrigues playing out in the Port Harcourt “faction” of the party, the politicians that gathered under what I like to call the Abuja “faction” did not hide their hatred for Sherriff. In fact, the group which appointed former Deputy Senate President, Senator Ibrahim Mantu, as chairman, applauded the decision of the Port Harcourt faction to “sack” Sherriff as the party chair. For the Abuja faction the main objectives “…have been achieved because we wanted a leadership that is credible, a leadership that will emerge through a constitutional process.” How then has he been working in the midst of his known and unknown enemies?
Perhaps, Sherriff is either overestimating the PDP from what he knew about the party about 16 years ago or underestimated the power of the new forces in the party to rise against him. I say this because, since Sherriff was governor of Borno state under the defunct All Nigerian Peoples Party (ANPP), he probably envied the “largest party in Africa.” He must have admired the fact that the PDP had more national outlook than his party whose influence starts from the North West and ends in the North East at its very best as against the PDP whose umbrella spreads across all the geo-political zones.
He probably did not figure in the fact that things have not remained the same for the party since President Goodluck Jonathan became the President and its leader. The party’s influence in the North as waned significantly afterwards. The party is now controlled by tribal warlords, religious chieftains and “our son” syndrome. It is no longer the national party most people, including Sherriff, know. The governors of the party are many based in the South especially the South-South and South-East geo-political zones. Technically speaking, the chairman who has no base in these power blocs is like building something on nothing and expecting it to stand. Since Sherriff is not ‘our son’, and he dared to have an ambition that negates those of the party bosses, the gang up against him in Garden City is understandable.
One of those who earlier supported him to be chairman, Ekiti State Governor Ayo Fayose, speaking through his spokesman, Lere Olayinka, said “I supported Senator Ali Modu Sheriff in good conscience. But when it became obvious that his continuous stay in office as the National Chairman will jeopardize the collective interest of the party, I had no option than to support his removal.” Again, with friends like Fayose, one needs to watch his back carefully!
Conflict management, interest articulation and political communications are important functions of every political system. The PDP as a political party needs to be more aware of these functions if it intends to perform in opposition. On this, I say, welcome to the real world!
Olalekan Waheed Adigun is a political risk analyst and independent political strategist. Email:,
*Photo Caption - PDP logo


[ Masterweb Reports: Press Release For Immediate Release ] - “Who Will Love My Country,” is the title of the latest book written by Senator Ike Ekweremadu, and it was presented to the public in Abuja on Wednesday April 27, 2016, a day that will go down in history, as a day, eminent Nigerians from all walks of life, were gathered, to unveil ideas on how to make the Nigeria of our dreams work.
The book is his own modest attempt at analyzing the challenges of the country, with a view to providing ideas capable of provoking the minds of Nigerian leaders, to pause and think of how best, a Nigeria of our dreams could be built.
In writing this thoughtful book, Senator Ike Ekweremadu admitted up-front that personal, professional and concrete reasons, he "loves Nigeria and will forever love it." However, it is "tough" love because he never gave the leadership, the elite and the citizens of this country "free passes" in the book; rather he sets very high standards of the stakeholders.
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The author wants a Nigeria that works and which delivers for the many rather than the few. In this regard, he clearly demonstrated that the deepening democracy would make Nigeria a better country whereby citizens would be led into "a nobler and more fulfilling lives and ultimately make us to love our country." Hence, loving Nigeria is of necessity, work in progress, although he feels sure that Nigeria's future is bright.
Nonetheless, Senator Ekweremadu shows, in his book, that while he is an optimist about our country, he harbours no illusion about its challenges. Most discerning Nigerians would agree, sadly, that almost fifty six years after independence, our country is not where it should be and not near where it can be in terms of socio-economic and infrastructural developments, Indeed, by comparison, countries with which we were at par in the years of our independence in 1960, in terms of per capita income such as Indonesia, Malaysia and Republic of Korea, have overtaken us in many respects.
In order to regain the development grounds which we have lost and to move Nigeria forward, the leadership and citizens of the country would need urgently to embark on concerted efforts to make three sets of changes: (a) structural and constitutional, especially in our federal system; (b) public policy, especially in the key areas of education, security sector reform, equitable resource sharing and poverty reduction, and (c) attitudinal, including especially on the issue of corruption, impunity and lack of accountability.
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In these areas requiring change, the author draws on his considerable and varied experiences at the local government, state, national and international levels (including as Speaker of ECOWAS Parliament) in providing penetrating analyses as well as concrete proposals for making them. His proposal are both forward looking and practical and if faithfully implemented by all concerned, would bring us closer to realizing the Nigeria of our dreams and those of our Founding Fathers: a united peaceful, prosperous and just nation.
Senator Ekweremadu has, however, very clearly demonstrated in this book that Nigerians “can only build a “Nigeria of our dreams” if they make bold efforts to “love her above our individual selves and narrow interests” we cannot expect other nations or foreigners to love us more than we love ourselves.
This book is a must-read for all Nigerians. Will you also love your country?
Sunshine Nigeria
*Photo Caption - Book cover

[ Masterweb Reports: Dr. Peregrino Brimah reports ] - Last Thursday a Boko Haram terrorist attempted to blow up the Borno state Government secretariat in Maiduguri. As Director Army Public Relations, Colonel Sani Usman described, police officers stationed intercepted the suicide bomber forcing the coward to detonate his bomb at the gate. This tragic event immediately claimed the life of one of the officers while the second, he narrated, died of his injuries later in the hospital.
The story ended there for Nigeria.
The media reported it as above. No names were given of the heroic officers by the army, the police and the media too failed to find and provide the names of these two martyrs.
Nigeria is busy. Nigeria does not really care what the names of victims and brave officers are. Too many things are happening; too many people are dying premature deaths and the identities of the masses, ordinarily police officers and soldiers does not really matter. What matters to us is the numbers... TWO officers died. ONE died instantly and number TWO died at the hospital.
500 were killed in Agatu. 50 were killed in Enugu. 200 were killed in Dalori.
The media at least gives us the numbers while the army, police and ministry of information gives nothing.
If Boko Haram or terror herders or the Army killed me tomorrow, Nigeria would simply say, ONE was killed yesterday.
It gets so loose, the government agencies actually see it fit to unnecessarily and extrajudicially kill 7, 8 or even 1000 that the other numbers and elite may be happy. It's just numbers after all.
Talking about the elite, the story is entirely different. When that minister died, we saw how the media and government addressed his death for several days. It was a day of mourning. It was not a number that had just passed but a person. A human being. 
A new friend, Abdallah brought this social breakdown to my attention in conversation yesterday. He said the Chief of Police Arase will not even visit the family of the deceased TWO cops. 
I said, they won't get compensated. He said, they won't even get their entitlements, talk-less compensation.
It was a sad moment of realization and reflection.
We agreed that it is not only about the government's lack of care, but the media, and the people in general. Perhaps too many have died for us to care; or perhaps we simply lack that aspect of humanity. The masses don't count, not to us, not to the media and definitely not to the authorities.
I thought it was impossible for Nigerians to create a picture and name public record of the dead but when hundreds of IMN Muslims were massacred in Zaria, I saw for a first time that it was actually possible to care, organize and get a complete list of names with pictures and not just numbers. The movement collated a list of names and images of 700, later updated to 750 victims.
Perhaps it's too expensive for our government to coordinate. Or perhaps it is insulting to them and they do not see this "annoying" act as trust and confidence reinforcing. I don't really know and at this point I don't really care. My heart is with the families of the brave TWO who died in Borno that we may be safe.
May their Creator who cares about them, receive them warmly and may He accord their family the respect, compassion, empathy and support that they deserve in these trying times.
The TWO police officers are my heroes.
I care about them and their identities and have sent out ward for their identities and contacts to be retrieved.
The many NUMBERS of soldiers that have died fighting Boko Haram are my heroes.
I owe their families and wards my life.
I send them my prayers and on behalf of our organisation, I promise to assist any of them who contacts us in any way we can as soon as we can.
Dr. Peregrino Brimah ( Email: ) reports.
*Photo Caption - Nigerian policemen

[ Masterweb Reports: Dr. Peregrino Brimah reports ] - Did you notice that as soon as the hiked fuel price was announced, stations that had not sold petrol in 10 months suddenly opened their gates to motorists? The reason was simple: as anti-corruption as the Buhari government prides itself to be, the past 11 months of this administration saw the oil cabal make billions of dollars by diverting supplied product to the black market under the wide eyes of the oil Ministry and security department.
Nigeria was sold to the black market fuel hustle for 11 months and has now been transferred into the hands of the Black market forex hustle. Literally from one black market to another.
If you do not believe all this was planned, then take a look at Minister Ibe Kachikwu's own confession as reported in all dailies on March 23rd. The Minister said under no apparent duress while ridiculing Nigerians that he "was not a magician":
the government’s strategy is that whatever produced in the refineries will not go for sale but will be kept “in strategic reserve because the key problem here is that there is no reserve; anytime there is a gap in supply, it goes off…So, we’re going to dedicate the next couple of months to moving all the products that we produce to strategic reserve so that we can pile up reserves and that will push up the reserves in the nation."
Ibe Kachikwu was openly admitting to "strategically reserving or hoarding" fuel and promised that after this hoarding was optimal, in about two months, the fuel scarcity would resolve.
Can such a Minister whose [promise holds no water, now be trusted?
Why was Kachikwu by his own admission, strategically hoarding fuel? 
By so doing, and by not regulating the sale of available fuel, allowing the black market to take over across the nation, Kachikwu instituted the hardship Nigerians underwent for the past months and aided the oil marketer cabal make billions through black market.
In Kachikwu's recent hike explanation speech released on his FaceBook page Monday, the Minister alluded to the fact that he had pity for the oil marketers. For the record, these are the same cabal who made fortunes while Nigerians suffered through the subsidy during the Diezani years. Rather than pity the masses and make available the same dollars the government sets aside for Dangote's $14 billion refinery and other cabal businesses, Kachikwu in his speech rejoiced the return of these hawks to money making business in the fuel supply chain to the detriment of the masses.
"We will make 200,000 jobs," Kachikwu said. How? What new jobs that are not existent in the bubbling downstream sector is this price upward regulation going to make? It is so easy to just throw these number around to hoodwink the masses. 
Another point Kachikwu failed to address is why the Federal government, still, I presume, importing 50% of consumed fuel with CBN dollars (at the N197) rate, will be making a whopping N50 on the heads of suffering Nigerians per liter sold. Is this a time for Nigeria's NNPC to make such money on the heads of the suffering masses? Should the masses not get some reprieve for a year or two before such margins are made on their heads by this new government taxation?
Jonathan promised that the removed subsidy will be invested in national projects. What is this NNPC going to do with the 50% mark-up profit it is making on the heads of Nigerians from its own share of product sourced with CBN dollars? I doubt the Senate asked Kachikwu this question.
Many do not understand the dynamics of the fuel hike and support Buhari blindly instead of supporting Nigeria and themselves. But Nigerians need more brain than heart. We cannot compare Nigeria to Saudi Arabia or Qatar that recently hiked their fuel prices as an editorial did for the simple reason: Nigeria has the most poor per capital than any nation in the world. We have over 90 million citizens living on under a dollar-a-day and Buhari's handouts to a privileged few million will do little to address the suffering in Nigeria.
Again, why should a handful of single individuals like Dangote and other cabal have access to dollars at the N197 CBN rate while the 170 million Nigerian masses are denied the privilege in business and now for the paltry $3 billion needed to import the 6 billion liters of fuel used per year? Can Kachikwu justify these governing processes are never examined in isolation but in totality. Why did Godwin Emefiele promise Dangote this January that he will get all the CBN rate dollars he needs while the masses can get no such respite for their businesses and even for their fuel? Buhari answered this question when asked on Aljazeera, "those who can afford it." He meant, those who the government decides are worthy enough to be given the privileged access to CBN dollars.
You just got cut out of that privileged club completely. This is why many of us have clamored for the devaluation of the devalued naira to stop this corruption and oppression. Only then can the fuel hiked rate be justified.
It is like a race where some are given a 50 meter advantage over the rest. It is corruption, oppression and injustice to give an advantage to the cabal and deny the masses.
Nigeria is betrothed to the black market while the cabal move from billions to billions as the world's richest men, with a 50% advantage over you.
Dr. Peregrino Brimah ( Email: ) reports.
*Photo Caption - Dr. Ibe Kachikwu, Minister of State for Petroleum

[ Masterweb Reports: Ronald Mutum reports ] - The Nigerian army has said troops on Operation Lafiya Dole rescued one of the abducted Chibok School Girls in Baale, Borno state. Army spokesman Colonel Sani Usman in a short statement on Wednesday said: “This is to confirm that one of the abducted chibok school girls, Falmata Mbalala, was among the rescued persons by our troops at Baale near Damboa.”
The BBC Hausa Service earlier today reported that the girl was rescued after an encounter between members of vigilante group known as Civilian JTF and Boko Haram fighters.
However, the report which quotes an activist, Professor Hauwa Biu identified the girl rescued as Amina Nkek from Mbalal village.
According to the BBC report, Nkek, who was found with a child, was later identified by her parents after she was taken to Chibok.
However, army spokesman Colonel Usman clarified that it is the same person despite the different name in the BBC report.
The report also said the girl is now with soldiers in Damboa, Borno state until further investigation is completed.
*Photo Caption - Nigeria Army banner


[ Masterweb Reports: Femi Hassan reports ] - On Friday May 6, 2016, President Muhammadu Buhari signed the appropriation bill into law. The signing into law of the bill for many signifies a kick start of economic activities in the country.

The question on the lips of many keen observers of the economy would be, since the budget was just signed into law, and the Presidency has been habitual in saying that it met an ‘empty treasury’ what on earth did they use to keep the country afloat?

The Goodluck Jonathan-led administration has been painted as crooks and thieves who plundered the country’s economy leaving it in a comatose state.

Asking some pertinent questions will proffer answers to this debate as to whether former president Jonathan left an empty treasury.

But is the insinuation really true? Did Jonathan strip Nigeria to shreds as declared by President Buhari and his team?

Where did the Buhari-led government get funds to bail out states? Where did it get funds to embark on its over 20 foreign trips, while also receiving estacodes for each trip?

It’s a known fact that the Jonathan-led government had obvious plans to save which was truncated by the greedy governors and members of the Sharing Governors’ Forum despite the advice by the former Minister of Finance; Dr Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala that the nation should save for the future. The governors refused, portraying their insatiable appetite to consume and not produce. They go cap in hand to Abuja like beggars all in a bid to share the nation’s resources.

The question we should ask the governors is: why can’t they pay their workers? Did Jonathan make them inept in making good business decisions? Why did some of them take bad loans from banks? What are they doing with their security votes? After all they are not in charge of security within their states, as the Federal Government still handles this, due to the absence of state policing.

With all these questions and more, not only do the governors’ have a case to answer, the Buhari-led government also have to prove that it met an empty treasury.

In the early days of his administration when the President said he met an empty treasury, it did not take long for his statement to be debunked in strong terms by one of the immediate past Minister/Deputy Chairman National Planning Commission (NPC) Dr. Abubakar Olanrewaju Sulaiman. Suleiman said the former administration as at May 29 left behind the sum of US$2billion, adding that the sum would have been higher if not the governors insistence on sharing the fund.

He said, “Government can’t tell us that there is no Excess Crude Account (ECA), Sovereign Wealth Fund (SWF) or are we saying the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) and related agencies had not in the last one month been generating revenue?

“Until they are able to prove they had no receipts from these government agencies in the last one month before Nigerians can now buy into Mr. President’s claims of an empty treasury.”

Before the governors received bail out from the Federal Government, the Accountant General of the Federation (AGF), Ahmed Idris, had announced that President Muhammadu Buhari and the 36 states had agreed to share $1.7bn (N391bn) from the balance of $2. 078 billion in the Excess Crude Account (ECA).

“The position is very clear. What we met on ground is what we are going to distribute,” Mr. Idris said. “What we met on ground is hovering between $1.6 bn and $1.7 bn, and that is what we are going to distribute among all the three tiers of governments based on the approved formula.”

With this coming from the Accountant General of the Federation, someone who is supposed to know the nation’s account details, how on earth then did the Jonathan-led government leave an empty treasury? I believe this is just an attempt to give a dog a bad name in order to hang it.

It’s obvious that this administration is clueless and wants to blame its inadequacies on Jonathan and his economic team led by Dr Iweala.

Femi Hassan ( Email: ) is a social commentator and writes from Lagos State.
*Photo Caption - Ex-President Goodluck Jonathan


[ Masterweb Reports: Intersociety reports ] - The leadership of International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law (Intersociety), supported by other nine group-members of the Southeast Based Coalition of Human Rights Organizations (SBCHROs) had on 11th of May 2016 dragged Nigeria’s Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) to 20 world’s leading democracies and great economies under the UN System, concerning hardened and ill-conceived position of the Commission over outstanding parliamentary rerun polls in Nigeria and its consequential capacity to collapse Nigeria’s fragile democracy and constitutionalism if......READ BELOW:
Before INEC Collapses Democracy In Nigeria: Our Case Against The Commission Over Outstanding Parliamentary Polls & Call For Your Urgent Diplomatic Intervention (2)
(Onitsha Nigeria, 14th of May 2016)-The leadership of International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law (Intersociety), supported by other nine group-members of the Southeast Based Coalition of Human Rights Organizations (SBCHROs) had on 11th of May 2016 dragged Nigeria’s Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) to 20 world’s leading democracies and great economies under the UN System, concerning hardened and ill-conceived position of the Commission over outstanding parliamentary rerun polls in Nigeria and its consequential capacity to collapse Nigeria’s fragile democracy and constitutionalism if unchecked. The letter was addressed to the United Nations Secretary General; Apostolic Nuncio (Pope’s Ambassador to Nigeria); United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR); United States Ambassador to Nigeria; Head, Delegation of the European Union to Nigeria & ECOWAS; EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs & Security (Federica Mogherini); British High Commissioner to Nigeria; Head, African Research Group/Dep. Head/Research Analyst of the UK Foreign& Commonwealth Office (Dr. Clare Thomas) and the Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany to Nigeria.
Others are the Canadian High Commissioner to Nigeria; Ambassador of the Republic of France to Nigeria; Brazilian Ambassador to Nigeria; Swedish Ambassador to Nigeria; Austrian Ambassador to Nigeria; Ambassador of the Netherlands to Nigeria; Ambassador of Switzerland to Nigeria; Belgian Ambassador to Nigeria; Japanese Ambassador to Nigeria; Australian High Commissioner to Nigeria; and Indian High Commissioner to Nigeria. The seven-page letter was also copied to the Senate President Bukola Saraki, Deputy Senate President Ike Ekweremadu, House of Reps Speaker Yakubu Dogara, INEC Chairman Mahmud Yakubu, and Attorney General of the Federation Abubakar Malami, SAN. The letter had successfully been delivered electronically and in hard copies to their recipients.
Below is the second and concluding part of the letter; first part of it( was made public on 12th of May 2016. The rest of the letter reads as follows: In Anambra Central Senatorial District, the appellate court order for the conduct of a rerun election into its vacant seat was made by the Enugu Division of the Court of Appeal on 6th of December 2015 and it expired on 6th of March 2016. In Imo North Senatorial District, the order of the Court of Appeal, Owerri Division was made on 11th of December 2015 and it expired on 11th of March 2016, with INEC observing it in gross breach. Two vacant State Legislative Assembly seats are also outstanding in Imo State till date.  The ninety days order of the Court of Appeal, Abuja Division to INEC to conduct and conclude a rerun election into the vacant Kogi East Senatorial District seat was made on 2nd of December 2015 and it expired on 2nd of March 2016.
Be further informed Your Excellencies that we had on 20th of April 2016 written the Chairman of INEC, Prof Mahmud Yakubu concerning the subject matter above and called on the Commission to urgently fix new dates for the conduct and conclusion of all outstanding parliamentary elections arising from the 2015 main elections, on account of their judicial nullifications. We complained bitterly, too, that over twelve months after the 2015 general elections were held, the Commission has failed to conduct and conclude its balloting processes in contravention of the existing electoral laws and judicial orders above cited.
Link to the said letter of ours is provided below: On 27th of April 2016, the Senate of the Federal Republic of Nigeria passed a resolution urging INEC to fix new dates, conduct and conclude all outstanding parliamentary elections or reruns including six vacant senatorial seats under reference. The link to the published resolution of the Senate is provided below:
On 29th of April 2016, the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) issued a statement, ignoring Intersociety and Senate’s clarion calls on the Commission to act lawfully by conducting and concluding the said outstanding rerun polls. The Commission admitted observing the court orders in breach and restated its indefinite postponement of all the outstanding parliamentary rerun elections in Anambra, Rivers, Kogi and Imo States; citing “violence and insecurity of its staffs”. The link to its said statement is provided below: The Commission had few weeks ago conducted and concluded elections in the Federal Capital Territorial and other outstanding reruns in Osun State, etc. Till date, the Commission is still withholding some results of the poor rerun polls it conducted in Rivers State on 19th of March 2016; a period of 52 days.
To use “insecurity” as a cover to deny over 20 million population their rights to effective, popular and deliberative representation at the National Assembly of Nigeria since December 2015, in this trying period in the life of Nigeria’s statehood that requires round-the-clock aggregation and congregation of the common interests of all ethnic nationalities in matters of legislative democracy; is the worst undoing of INEC. The Commission’s independence, credibility and impartiality are seriously under threats.
In Anambra Central Senatorial District, the Commission goofed unpardonably by becoming so partisan that it became an interested and biased third party on the issue of “who or which party is to be included in the rerun or otherwise”. Even when the Commission was ordered judgmentally on 1st of March 2016 by the Abuja Division of the Federal High Court to allow one of the participating political parties; which the Commission magisterially barred from contesting; to contest and field its new candidate, following extraneous circumstances, the Commission, rather than obeying the order and complying with the judgment; rushed and filed an appeal, challenging the Court judgment. Till date, nothing is heard from the said appeal filed weeks after the judgment; a period of over 40 days. The Commission also issued a statement, postponing the Senatorial rerun indefinitely. Instances of INEC’s gross misconducts that are capable of collapsing Nigeria’s fragile democracy abound. Also by law and Nigeria’s democracy, policies and conducts of all public bodies and persons in Nigeria including INEC are subject to judicial reviews and pronouncements.
In modern democracies, States exist to protect their citizens and ensure their welfares at all times. This is commonly referred to as “sovereignty as a responsibility” or “citizens’ sovereignty”. In Nigeria’s 1999 Constitution, her Section 14 (2) (b) mandates or compulsorily provides that “the security and welfare of the people shall be the primary purpose of the Government” and (c) “the participation by the people in their government shall be ensured, in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution”. It is therefore abominable for the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) to shift the responsibility of “providing security and violence free environment” for conduct and conclusion of its outstanding rerun polls, to the voting population; failing which the Commission announced indefinite suspension of all outstanding rerun polls.
As delicate and dicey as the then Boko Haram affected Northeast Nigeria was, yet the then Prof Attahiru Jega led INEC successfully conducted elections in the area. We have suspected and still suspect strongly that INEC’s excuses for suspending the said rerun polls are politically motivated and ill-conceived. The Commission may most likely be acting a script of the federal ruling party and the presidency in Nigeria for the purpose of muscling or decimating the strength of the federal opposition party and geopolitical zones at the country’s National Assembly. The Southeast and the South-south geopolitical zones are the country’s known opposition strongholds in the present political dispensation. Also, the areas where outstanding parliamentary rerun polls are suspended by the Commission are majorly controlled by the opposition zones and political parties.
 We, therefore, call on Your Excellencies to intervene diplomatically and bring pressure to bear on INEC before it collapses the country’s fragile democracy. Other than Your Excellencies’ immense positive diplomatic influences wield over the Federal Republic of Nigeria, we are also aware that each of Your Excellencies’ home governments sets aside every year robust development aid or grant packages for Nigeria, which run into hundreds of millions of dollars, pounds or Euros, in aid or support of the country’s advancement in democracy, electoral reform, rule of law, humanitarianism, human rights and security.
We are further aware that the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) is a major recipient of these development aids or interventions, either directly or through codified or budgetary means. We are aware, too, that UK alone, for instance, has set aside 250Million British Pounds in development aid to Nigeria for 2016. These development interventions are strictly guided by a set of rules or conditions, which include credibility, accountability, impartiality and neutrality of INEC and its obedience to rule of law; justice and electoral reforms; respect for human rights including civil and political rights as well as security of the citizens and popular conduct of periodic elections under one-person-one-vote doctrine. Your Excellencies’ diplomatic intervention under demand is also in furtherance of the advancement of the purposes and principles of the United Nations which include promotion of democracy, local and international peace and security; protection of human rights and advancement of democratic free speech and good governance.
INEC should, therefore, be called upon and monitored by Your Excellencies to ensure that it does not become a roguish and parasitic electoral commission capable of collapsing Nigeria’s fragile democracy. The Commission must be mirrored transparently by Your Excellencies to justify its continued supports from Your Excellencies’ home governments. The Commission’s adamant refusal and woeful failure to conduct and conclude the referenced outstanding parliamentary rerun elections as ordered by law and courts should strongly be condemned in unmistakable terms by Your Excellencies.
INEC should specifically be called upon by Your Excellencies to fix new dates for the said polls, conduct and conclude same inexcusably. It is also the constitutional duty of the Commission and the security agencies in Nigeria; not the voting population, to provide security and ensure absence of violence during such polls. The best way to ensure these is for the Commission to play by the rules and refrain from being seen or perceived by the public and other involved parties as “interested or compromised third party”. The Board of INEC, which is yet to be fully or properly constituted by the Senate and the Presidency in accordance with Nigeria’s 1999 Constitution, should also be properly done through Your Excellencies’ diplomatic pressures, as a matter of uttermost immediacy and extreme public importance so as to ensure the Commission’s true credibility and independence.
Yours Faithfully,
For: International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law (Intersociety)
Emeka Umeagbalasi, Board Chairman
Mobile Line: +2348174090052
Obianuju Joy Igboeli, Esq., Head, Civil Liberties & Rule of Law Program
Mobile Line: +2348180771506
Chinwe Umeche, Esq., Head, Democracy & Good Governance Program
Mobile Line: +2347013238673
*Photo Caption - As seen.





[ Masterweb Reports: Okike Benjamin reports ] - My name is Okike Benjamin, a teacher in the Department of Computer Science, University of Abuja, Nigeria. I write to express my profound displeasure over the comment made recently by the Prime Minister of Britain, Mr. David Cameron that Nigeria is a ‘fantastically corrupt’ country. This type of negative comment should be totally rejected by all Nigerians irrespective of place of residence.
If there is any country’s leader who should make such a comment, it is not expected to be from that of Britain, Nigeria’s colonial master. Whether Nigerians like it or not, the act of corruption is passed to us by the British. Today, such is becoming a culture in Nigeria. Nigerians are very smart people and as we learnt from our colonial master, the “Great” Britain this ill wind of corruption which blows no one any good, we have perfected this act and made it a way of life before now. Today, the government of the day is doing all within her disposal to make corruption a thing of the past within Nigeria and we hope that this would be achieved by collective efforts by all Nigerians.
It is unfortunate that not only did they (British) teach us the act of corruption when they were our colonial master, they still watered and nurtured it to ensure that it flourishes in the country. This they achieve by encouraging corrupt Nigerians to keep their monies in banks in Britain. I do not have any statistics as the amount of money belonging to Nigerians stashed in various banks in Britain, but it is possible such amount could fund our 2016 budget. The country, Britain aid and abet corruption till date.
History revealed that in 1839, British government sent an expeditionary force of 12,000 soldiers into Afghanistan to dethrone the then king in the person of Dost Mohammad and set up their own hand-picked king. In other words, Britain also cultivated and allowed the growth of corruption in Afghanistan, one of the countries mentioned alongside Nigeria by the Prime Minister of Britain as a ‘fantastically corrupt’ country.
From the experience of the British in Nigeria during colonial era and her role in Afghanistan, it may not be out of place to say that Britain is ‘fantastically more’ corrupt than Nigeria, which learnt corruption from them and Afghanistan where they planted the crop of corruption and supplied it with adequate manure to grow to maturity.
Okike Benjamin ( Email: ) reports
*Photo Caption – As seen.