Translational inhibition due to CHEAP RETIN-A the fact that the path of the excitation occurs Br neuron. recurrent inhibition     Carried intercalary brake cells (Renshaw). Axons of buy nolvadex online canada motor neurons often give collaterals (branches), ending with Renshaw cells. Renshaw cell axons terminate on the body or dendrites of the motor neuron, forming inhibitory synapses. Arousal that occurs in motor neurons travel in a straight path to the skeletal muscle, as well as collaterals to inhibitory neurons, which send impulses to motoneurons and inhibits them. The stronger the motor neuron excitation, the more excited Renshaw cells and the more intense they exert their inhibitory effect, which protects nerve cells from overstimulation. lateral inhibition    

[ Masterweb Reports: Chief Dr. Sylvester Obi Dikas reports ] - As a practioner of Necromancy and Quantum Physics, Gen. Ojukwu predicted that Candidate Goodluck Ebele Jonathan would win the presidency of 2011 and would inevitably win a SECOND TERM as Nigeria’s President.{2010-Ojukwu Archives,Enugu} In his own words, Gen. Ojukwu advised the Leadership of Igbo and all Igbo “to vote EN MASSE for Jonathan simply because he remains the best hope for the Igbo world, for the Democratic Nigeria and for the International Community”
History remembers Gen. Ojukwu for his guts, temerity and his unparalleled leadership skills and as a brilliant tactician. At 75 (2009) his general health began to fail him. Yet, he remained acerbic, pragmatic, witty and as opinionated as before. But his ability to write, cogitate and praise the Nigeria’s power brokers was seriously reduced. Nonetheless, Ojukwu was able to predict that GEJ is strategically positioned to lead Nigeria in its war on BOKO HARAM. In the interest of simplicity, I would rather paraphrase Ojukwu’s compendious song of praise for Candidate Jonathan.
Gen. Ojukwu based his prediction of Candidate Jonathan as the winner of Nigeria’s Presidency and inevitably as the second-term president is grounded on the following premise:
** The Invincible hands of GOD, Fate and Destiny gave Jonathan to Nigeria for a Reason. It’s perhaps because Candidate Jonathan understands the Mythology of the Igbo Race and the Delta Region in the Political context of Nigeria more than his critics.

** In his capacity as the Vice President,GoodluckEeleJonathan demonstrated political skills,tenacity, strategic vision and tactical nimbleness that made him a presidential timber.

** In his interim position as the V/P he demonstrated that if he were the president, he would not create a Ganster government that is idealogically driven. Rather he would encourage a government that’s focused on the needs,struggles, hopes/aspirations of the ordinary people.needs,struggles,hopes/aspirations of the ordinary people.  

** Even as the VP most Nigerians perceived him as the Messiah-capable of solving the intractable problems of the generation-INSURGENCY around the OIL DELTA REGION of Nigeria.

** According to Gen. Ojukwu, Candidate Jonathan understands that “Nigeria has a bunch of mindless extremists of all stripes-religious-red-eyed zealots and other political mischiefs, the Rain makers of the North-the Purveyors of BOKO HARAM whose goal is to overthrow any Nigerian Federal government, whose leadership is a Southerner. And in its place,they would set up an Islamic style caliphate.” {Gen. Ojukwu Archive, Enugu.]

** To borrow from Ojukwu again,”Despite its divisions, and inequalities, Jonathan would meticulously unite Nigeria-defusing potential tensions and practically avoiding a growing crisis that might give rise to another war of Holocaust and Destruction.”

** Gen. Ojukwu truly believes that given the memory of the recent Nigeria Civil War, in which the Igbo nation was almost destroyed and decapitated,it therefore makes strategic sense that only immediate GEJ Administration would guarantee the real “Marshal Plan” of true Reconstruction , Restitution and Reconciliation [the 3RS]for all the Eastern States of Nigeria.
** After his One-Term Presidency, his name ‘President Jonathan’ continues to reverberate in Africa and among International Community. It’s very visible that most world leaders would rather do business with President Jonathan than with his critics or his detractors.

** But why is GEJ so popular among Nigerians and world leaders? It’s simply because he doesn’t posses the DNA of TRIBALISM or CLANNISHNESS. Like the Hon. Professor Wole Soyinka of Africa,under the continued Leadership of Jonathan, Tribalism and the STIGMA of BOKO HARAM will be dead and buried.

** As Gen. Ojukwu observed, “Jonathan popularized himself because he recognized that building Democratic Principles needs time and patience. It takes more than one term, or even more than two terms for political miracles to be achieved in Nigeria”.

**Gen.Ojukwu as a strategic, military tactician remarked that Candidate Jonathan is gifted with the rare ability to strengthen the Democratic Institutions already in place and can invest in people and bolster National and International Security.

** In his second Term, Jonathan will reverse the tide of fiscal/financial profligacy in Nigerian Politics by bringing more women with Management/Business know- how in his administration.

** President Jonathan clearly understands the Cultural/Traditional rhythms of the Disenfranchised Delta Region/the Eastern States of Nigeria more than his curren critics and detractors.

** As a progressive thinker, problem solver and a peace-maker, Jonathan knows how to reconcile Modern Democracy/Islamic Culture with the highest sense of PRAGMATISM more than his critics.
Gen. Ojukwu Advises the Igbo Elite and Ohaneze Ndigbo:
** ” As strategic thinkers,the Igbo Nation should and must vote for Candidate Goodluck Ebele Jonathan if he asks for it because he is our best hope.”

** ” The Igbo world must recognize who their inherent enemies are. Follow the concept of Political Neutrality as demonstrated by my Surrogate-Peter Obi.”

** Don’t forget that I paid my dues-my ultimate prize to save a generation of the Igbo race.There will be no more wars as all wars are zero-sum-game.”

** If the Nemesis of BOKO HARAM continues,our best hope will be SOUTHERN SOLIDARITY-Think about its Philosophical Construct.”

** If the Igbo world is provoked again, there will be another War, but it will be a war with ‘Diplomatic Bullets’ and would be waged by Diplomatic Professionals and the Igbo ntion will be victorious.”

** I leave you with my prediction of the future Political Leadership of Nigeria:
Candidate Goodluck Ebele Jonathan will win the 2011 presidency.The Nigerian Constitution qualifies him to seek SECOND TERM as president. I therefore, humbly ask the Igbo World to vote for Jonathan under the Canopy of Ohaneze Ndigbo simply because he is our best hope for now”. [Gen.Ojukwu,2009 Enugu Archives]
Chief Sylvester Obi Dikas, Ph.D. ( Email: ), Authorized Research Scholar of Gen. Ojukwu As An Institution reports.
*Photo Caption - President Goodluck Jonathan

 [ Masterweb Reports: Intersociety reports ] - (Democracy & Civil Liberties, Onitsha Nigeria, 21st March 2015)-Scholarly and popularly speaking, the fundamental causes of civil wars and violence around the world particularly in Africa are political exclusion and systematic undermining of socio-ethnic identities particularly of minority populations. The 2015 general elections’ handling styles informally adopted by the Independent National Electoral Commission are clearly laid on the foregoing premise. The fundamental feature of a plural society is its ability to protect at all times the rights of the minority populations particularly their inalienable rights to participate, vote or be voted for in national elections.
To ensure this, democratically advanced countries with plural settings have gone extra miles in adopting proportional representations and other favorable pluralistic measures in their national elections to lay to bare all encompassing democratic practices. Countries like Switzerland, Denmark, Belgium and even South Africa are typical examples. In the United States, the two dominant national policies in the country as of date are issues of voting and immigration rights. At a point in the contemporary history of the USA, it became evident that a favorable national policy must be devised to accommodate and legalize the rights of approximately eleven million unlawful immigrants in the country as at 2013.
In the country under reference, a Hispanic (Mexican American) or Chinese American or African American is fully empowered by law and morality to vote or be voted for in municipal, State, legislative or presidential polls. As a matter of fact, the country’s current President has a trio of Kenyan, Indonesian and American descent. He earned his electoral value and popularity leading to his triumphant presidential emergence in 2008 as a celebrated minority voters’ rights advocate.
It has always been calamitous in the histories of countries that stuck to their guns on majority superiority at all times electoral governing styles. From Burundi to Rwanda; Africa’s Great Lakes region to Sierra Leone and Liberia; the list is too long to be exhausted. The most typical example is Ivory Coast; the former Paris of Africa. Most of the 30 ongoing civil wars and insurrections (intra State conflicts) in Africa are waged following fierce protests against political exclusion and ethnic cleansing of the minority populations, considered as antithetical to their social existence and values. Dangers and consequences of political exclusion targeted at the minority populations are tangibly and intangibly catastrophic and age long. Civil wars premised on economic/resource and political disagreements can easily be overcome; but certainly not those triggered off by ethnic and religious suppression. In other words, value oriented civil wars are age long and unquenchable; except where the political actors act swiftly and arrest same at early warning levels.
Our step by step pre election advocacy with respect to the 2015 general elections in Nigeria has openly revealed that it will very difficult for present INEC leadership to exonerate itself from the strong accusation of running an informal policy of political exclusion targeted at Nigeria’s minority populations particularly in its distribution and issuance of permanent voters cards (PVCs) to all registered voters in the country.

The socially disastrous policy under reference appeared to have been designed in two folds (registration of voters and issuance of permanent voters’ cards). During the Commission’s voters’ registration, millions of citizens of voting age belonging to Igbo and minority nationalities were informally denied registration through discriminatory and hash policies and actions of the Commission. In the distribution of PVCs, the Commission applied lopsidedness to further disenfranchise millions of registered voters of minority populations or entities in Nigeria. The disastrous policy under condemnation appears to have been put in place in 2011 general voters registration exercise in the country in a clannish bid to maintain and hold unto the age long northern population superiority over the south and born to rule principles dated back to post 1955 premier census. Interestingly, of the 15 standing committees of the Commission, Prof Attahiru Jega, apart from his headship of INEC, also chairs the three most sensitive and powerful committees of Information Technology & Voters’ Registration, Finance & General Purpose as well as Security. It is likely correct to hold that Nigeria is sitting on a keg of gun powder at the instance of the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC).
Our findings following our careful watch over the country-wide PVCs distribution clearly showed that greater number of voting citizens of ethnic minorities in Nigeria particularly the pastoral segment of the referenced populations did not get their PVCs. The INEC’s informal disastrous policy under reference and condemnation also introduced religious and ethnic identification into the PVCs distribution handling styles. With this, it became easier to identify Christians, Muslims and their ethnic origins and locations. The unwanted populations and their locations were easily figured out and demographically cleansed.
In our latest findings, most of the uncollected PVCs in the Northeast, the Northwest, Niger and Plateau States in the North-central as well as Lagos State are PVCs belonging to registered voters of minority and Igbo backgrounds. In other words, over 98% of registered voters of majority, Islamic and sedentary populations have received their PVCs as 17th March 2015. In sedentary population PVCs distribution, we mean host Yoruba voters at home in the Southwest particularly in Lagos State, host Hausa-Fulani Muslim voters at home in the Northwest and the Northeast and parts of the North-central particularly in Kano, Kaduna, Jigawa, Borno, Sokoto, Kebbi, Zamfrara, Bauchi, Niger and Plateau States. Most of the guest and minority populations in the area are denied PVCs. We challenge INEC to prove us wrong publicly by making public statistical breakdown of the names or identities of those it has given PVCs in the referenced areas.
In Kaduna State, most of those who did not get their PVCs are minority Christians of the Southern Kaduna and guest Igbo population; likewise in Kano State particularly in Sabon Gari and Nasarawa LGAs or areas. In Plateau State, most of the non-recipients of the PVCs are guest Igbo registered voters and Plateau Christian indigenes. In Borno, Taraba and Adamawa States in the Northeast with sizable Igbo and Christian populations, the story is not different. Instead, the Commission said it has made adequate arrangements for Muslim IDPs of Borno and Yobe States to vote in strange voting centers the Commission created for them.

The Commission said it has no resources and provisions to allow their Christian counterparts outside the area to vote. In Lagos State, out of 2,022, 933 registered voters that have not been given PVCs by INEC as at 17th March 2015; 70% or more are Igbo and other guest residents. In all these, the PVCs of the referenced citizens were deliberately misplaced or mis-located/mis-distributed, or impersonated or officially hoarded or cleansed.
Further, our findings from the pattern of PVCs collections in the 36 States and the FCT as well as the country’s six geopolitical zones as at 17th March 2015 showed that there have been no PVCs collections particularly in most States of the Northwest zone since February 26, 2015. For instance, in Kano and Kaduna States, no single PVC was collected between 7th March and 17th March 2015. Their collection figures remain 3, 174, 519 out of total registered voters of 3, 407, 222 for Kaduna State and 4, 112, 039 out of total registered voters of 4, 975, 701 for Kano State respectively. Same thing applies to Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara States.
In the Northeast zone, similar situation applies except in Bauchi State where there was alarming PVC collection allocation of 188, 701 in ten days (7th to 17th March 2015). In all these, it simply shows that all Muslim populations said to have been registered to vote including under-age voters have all been allocated PVCs leaving Igbo and minority Christians in the referenced areas without PVCs. While the former are kingly issued with PVCs, the latter are tortuously dribbled and denied same by INEC.
In all, as INEC finally closes its grossly lopsided PVCs distribution across the country tomorrow 22nd March 2015, its latest update of 17th March has clearly indicated that 12. 482, 700 registered voters dominated by Christians, Igbo and ethnic minorities `have been disenfranchised by the Commission and denied participation in the referenced crucial polls particularly the presidential, owing to the inability of the Commission to issue them PVCs. With this alarming number of registered voters technically excluded and disenfranchised by INEC, it is likely correct to hold that the Commission’s perceived desperation to return power to the core North is coming to fruition. Like we earlier said, the 2015 Presidential Election is long rigged demographically and kept in coolers waiting for its legitimatization date called “28th March 2015”; except God divinely says otherwise.
For instance, in the Commission’s referenced PVCs distribution of 17th March 2015, nothing has changed. The Commission said it has distributed total PVCs of 56, 350, 776 or 81.87%, out of the total registered voters of 68, 833, 476; leaving 12, 482, 700 registered voters dominated by Igbo and minority Christians and populations without PVCs and disenfranchised. This includes over one million PVCs not yet produced and delivered to the Commission till date; 500,000 of them awarded to a local firm in Abuja. In four days from 12th March to 17th March 2015, by our careful calculation, a total of 450, 901 PVCs were distributed across the country, out of which the North (Bauchi State 188, 701) got 202, 723 and the South 252, 178.

In the geopolitical breakdown, the Southwest got 199, 720 (Ogun 148, 583), the South-south 46, 851, the Southeast 5, 607; the Northwest 1, 388, the Northeast 189, 264 (Bauchi State 188, 701) and the North-central 12, 071. In all, the North now has a total of 32, 244, 050 PVCs as of date while the South has 24, 197, 023 PVCs. The staggering gap between the North and the South in current PVCs distribution and possession in Nigeria is 8, 047, 027. In Lagos State, a total of 2, 022, 933 registered voters dominated by non indigenes particularly the Igbos have been disenfranchised and denied their PVCs and voting rights by INEC.
The recent public comment of the INEC Chairman justifying the possibility of his Commission not giving every registered voter in Nigeria his or her PVC before the referenced national polls, using low voters’ percentage in the recent staggered gubernatorial polls in Ekiti and Osun States as a defense, is most regrettable and condemnable. The INEC leadership under Prof Attahiru Jega must be reminded by all and sundry that in the Presidential election involving multi ethnic and religious groupings like in Nigeria, denying a whopping 12.4m registered voters their rights to vote by way of non issuance of PVCs to them; is tantamount to ethnic cleansing and political alienation. It is important to inform that 12.4m registered voters denied PVCs in Nigeria is more than the population of a sovereign country.
In law, he who asserts must prove! That is to say that since INEC insisted on using PVCs for the referenced elections, the Commission must give every citizen registered to vote PVC to enable him or her participate and vote in the referenced crucial polls. The Commission having failed woefully in this regard must be ready to face the consequences including moral, legal and social. The 2015 General Polls are already corrupted and tainted courtesy of INEC’s grossly biased handling styles. We will not be surprised if their outcomes particularly the presidential are rejected roundly by any party or candidate that is the target of the despicable informal policy of the Commission under complaint and condemnation. From every indication, we dare say that INEC’s ethnicized 2015 electoral midwifery is equivalent to a declaration of war against Nigeria’s ethnic nationalities and minority populations.
Emeka Umeagbalasi, B.Sc. (Hons.) Criminology & Security Studies
Board Chairman, International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law
Uzochukwu Oguejiofor, Esq., (LLB, BL), Head, Campaign & Publicity Department
*Photo Caption - Prof. Attahiru Jega, INEC Chairman.


[ Masterweb Reports: Sulay B. Conteh reports ] - When we talk of global warming, the first thing that comes to mind is carbon dioxide (CO2). The emission of CO2 is the main cause of global warming, followed by the emission of methane (CH4), the emission of carbon-floro-clorides (CFC) and direct heat release into the atmosphere from various heating sources including volcanoes and power-generating plants. In fact, most heat-generating sources are also global-warming gas generating sources; adding further to the complexity and severity of the global warming processes. Not only the rate of emission but also the rate of destruction of the sources of storage of global-warming agents today is unparalleled in history.
With industrialization has come unprecedented levels of population boom, land plundering for agricultural production and fossil fuel consumption to meet the never-ending human needs. While CO2 emission from fossil fuel combustion is fairly a direct chemical process with significant instant effects, CO2 storage by plants (notably forests) and the oceans is a fairly indirect biochemical process that takes decades if not centuries to realize meaningful storage. There is also the so-called CO2 capture and storage or disposal into the earth. While CO2 capture is largely limited to stationary emission sources such as power-generating plants, geological formations suitable for CO2 disposal or permanent storage are highly limited. There is also the problem of prohibitive cost associated with CO2 capture and storage into the earth; which many companies and countries cannot afford.
The highly intensive emission of CO2 and extremely extensive destruction of the sources of CO2 storage are among the most disastrous concurrences for the survival and subsistence of the human race. Such concurrences only but worsen global warming that in turn increases the occurrence of extreme hydro-climatic and geophysical conditions with highly destructive and mass-killing capacities. Among the telltales of global warming are high temperatures, mass melt of polar ice caps, prolonged droughts, mass crop failures, high pest and disease incidence, mass species deaths, frequent cyclones, tornadoes, floods, hailstorms, dust-storms, solar-storms, El Niños, earthquakes and tsunamis, etc. Even in the face of the unprecedented on-going retreat of polar ice caps, resurgence of tornadoes, steady rise of sea level and the persistence of droughts due to worsening global warming conditions, the community of nation states still prioritizes economic growth over cuts in greenhouse gases emissions.
If you today had the opportunity to travel the world (especially the developed and rapidly developing worlds), you would be shocked by the propensity of destruction of forest cover of the world. This becomes even extremely alarming if you travelled the world during off-season periods when over ninety percent of the cultivated lands lie idle and barren. Also vasts of lands that were once forests have been converted into settlements, roads, recreations and protected zones with virtually not forests now. Also most surface water systems in the developed and rapidly developing worlds have been harnessed for the never-ending human needs, including domestic, industrial and agricultural needs. In the developed and rapidly developing worlds, it is not uncommon to see countless rivers without a single drop of water in over ninety percent of the river courses, starting from the head right down to the mouth of the rivers.
Man has so much so humanized the world that the consequences of over-modifying nature are now returning to haunt us in disastrous ways. It is high time we took a brake to put a brake on our ever-deepening thirst for the so-called economic development lest we completely break the world down. To break down our world will be a catastrophic event as the collapse of the world over us could completely wipe out our so unique human race. So please take a step today to save the world and the human race by cutting down on your emission of greenhouse gases and conserving the world’s forests.
Sulay B. Conteh ( Email: ) reports.
*Photo Caption - Map of the world as a globe

[ Masterweb Reports: Carllister Ejinkeonye reports ] - The rescheduled elections will soon be here with us. An opportunity to exercise one’s democratic rights by helping to decide in whose hands the affairs of the country should be in the next couple of years ought to be an exciting period totally devoid of fear and dread. That is why the desperation saturating the political atmosphere needs to be defused. While not begrudging the politicians the opportunity to seek to be voted into power, they should try not to stifle the excitement that should accompany every democratic exercise in our country.
Why for instance should people be consumed with fear for their lives and those of their loved ones each time Nigerians are going to the polls? Yes, some of the politicians may be genuinely interested in improving our lives and society if voted into office, but they should also duly respect our right to reject them at the polls, despite their noble intentions. And when that happens, they should accept our verdict with grace and equanimity and wait for another opportunity to repackage and represent themselves to us more attractively.   
It is not and should not be a do-or-die affair. There have been reports of clashes between supporters of rival parties here and there. Some politicians have not helped matters too. Provocative statements oozing from their mouths tend to be viewed by their misguided supporters as a signal for “war.” And as one encounters the reports of some ‘battles’ already staged even while the elections are still a couple of weeks away, one is deeply pained that in the event of any struggle between giant ‘elephants,’ it is always the tender grasses that  suffer and get destroyed.  When lives are snuffed out, what once looked like rosy futures are brutally aborted.
But, are the people itching to put their lives on the line for selfish politicians aware that at the end of the day, when the smoke of battle has cleared, the once   “fire-spitting” politicians would always find ways to amicably settle their differences and use the blood of those who had wasted their lives for them to negotiate juicy appointments for themselves. And what would be the fate of the grasses they had crushed when the battle was raging? Who will reserve a care in the world for those nursing life-threatening wounds sustained during the battles fought on their behalf? Yes, who cares? That is the reason for this outcry to Nigerian youths (the easy conscripts to these self-serving struggles and clashes). They should shine their eyes!
The Nigerian youth ought to have realized by now that he has been deceived and used a lot for unwholesome enterprises, in which he has remained the ultimate loser each time. Will he be deceived forever before he realizes himself?  Some of his peers have had their lives impaired or even cut short for willingly doing the unhealthy biddings of unscrupulous and selfish politicians. Must other youths allow that to be their fate too before they realize that the fellows using them do not attach any value to their lives? Must this continue to happen again and again?
As one looks at the beautifully photoshopped smiling faces of politicians on posters and bill boards, one cannot help wondering what are hidden behind those wide grins.  Afterall, their pronouncements and actions are often in direct contrast to the faces they display. But it is a pity that majority of those who blindly follow them and do their every bidding are unable to read the handwriting on the wall. And a very painful reality is that majority of these blind followers and easy preys are young Nigerian men and women – the so-called future leaders.
It is time the Nigerian youths asked themselves how and where many of their fathers and mothers that had danced to the tune of these politicians and helped them execute their self-serving designs are today.  What impact did their association with these fellows make on their families and society?  This is therefore the time to shine their eyes and determine, like Chinua Achebe once said, where the rain began to beat them.
My simple advice to Nigerian youths today is: You have a choice in this matter! You can refuse to die the death which man and the devil have designed for you.  You do not need the kind of politicians we see around today to be whom you should become.  Most of them have rather influenced the lives and future of many young people in the wrong direction, an evil they would not even contemplate for their own children.  What good can a man possibly offer who has carefully packaged his own children and sent them off to some distant, safe land, and so now cares less how his unguarded language and actions heat up the atmosphere of the nation where other children like his are stuck in?  The politician that works so hard to ensure that there is always pre-election or  post-election violence or both, does not care how many young adults remain or are cut down in their prime as they seek to realize their ambitions?  For many of them, their familiar refrain is that “blood must flow” if things do not work out the way they had anticipated, but whose blood?  Of course, not theirs or that of their children or relatives.  So youths, you had better shine your eyes. Do not be the prey. 
I watched an incident during the previous elections.  I was at an aunt’s burial proceedings when a politician vying for a particular seat came around because one my cousins belonged to one of the parties.  Before he appeared, so much praises and noise had been made to herald him. And  before leaving the venue, he dropped some amount of money which I wouldn’t want to mention here, an amount which I found so humiliating to the people that I wished I could be allowed to throw it back at him.  Later the women needed to share the money among themselves (peanut it was indeed) and what did I see? Loud voices of misunderstanding, quarrels and curses as they decided on who should get what.  Meanwhile, the ‘good’ man had majestically walked away amidst ovations while the villagers laid curses on each other as they shared the paltry sum.  Relatives and those who had enjoyed friendly and harmonious relationships before the arrival of the ‘philanthropist’ suddenly became enemies, and who knows how far that would go.
I would really want my dear young Nigerians to know that these politicians are not altogether foolish afterall, even if they once were.  ‘Nothing goes for nothing,’ they now insist.  In times past, some fellows had counseled that one could accept the ‘free’ gifts distributed by them during their campaigns but vote for the candidate of one’s choice and go scot free.  Today it is no longer so.  It does seem that their gifts have assumed a shade of Greek, and those who take them might eventually pay heavy prices. Indeed, even the few cups of garri or rice that came to one could be very ruinous.  Now, ask yourself: do these desperate, “generous” politicians allow their children or other relatives to partake of those their ‘benevolence’ or ‘good will’?  Check it out.  Any of their relatives driven by greed to partake in those gifts is on his own.  The gifts are usually given from very “special” purses or stocks. Yes, they are Greek gifts!
So, young men and women, do not contaminate your precious life and future with cursed ‘gifts’.  What you see and receive from them is more of poisoned apples. Be wise?  Unfortunately, information like this hardly gets to the youths who are actively engaged in some unwholesome political activities and who wear the “garments of death” for politicians. Neither does it get to suicide bombers lurking somewhere in markets, motor parks and other places waiting to brutally destroy themselves and others, or those of them roaming the villages and highways ready to do whatsoever money had persuaded them to.  It is incumbent on religious and traditional leaders, parents, teachers, etc, to ensure that these youths are no longer brainwashed and led to their ruin. We owe it to them. 
Indeed, the youths of this country have a responsibility to firmly determine to save themselves. They must resist the lethal seduction of selfish politicians. They must help their sisters, brothers and friends to do so. Let their eyes open so they can see clearly to prepare themselves for a better Nigeria , which shall surely come.  Indeed, soon, it will be their turn to lead the country. So, they must not mortgage their destiny no matter how alluring the “mess of pottage” being placed before them is. And that is why I tell them again and again: shine your eyes!
Mrs. Carllister Ejinkeonye (, System Analyst/Programmer,  reports from Lagos, Nigeria. 
*Photo Caption - Mrs. Carllister Ejinkeonye

[ Masterweb Reports: Obinna Akukwe reports ] - Prof Attahiru Jega has proven to be the hero of democratic innovations through the insistence on using card reader as means of authenticating voters in the upcoming 2015 elections, in a nation where satanic madness is raging over the transparent conduct of elections.

1n 1999, Prof Eme Awa was in charge of National Electoral Commission of Nigeria, saddled with conducting a free and fair election after God delivered Nigeria from the grip of the late dictator, General Sanni Abacha. In the 1999 elections, Chief Olu Falae was rigged out by Chief Olusegun Obasanjo through the help of then military dictator Gen Abdulsalami Abubakar, former Military dictator, Gen Ibrahim Babangida and multi millionaire businessmen  like Former Governor of Abia State, Chief Orji Uzor Kalu.

In 2003, it was the turn of Edo born Sir Abel Goubadia to conduct election and he superintended a process whereby General Muhammadu Buhari, former military dictator and flag bearer of ANPP was rigged out with the help of Vice President Atiku Abubakar who gave President Obasanjo insight into how modern day vote robbery could be executed.  In that election, Obasanjo who according to security reports came a distant third with Buhari (ANPP) and Odumegwu Ojukwu(APGA) leading, became the winner of the fraudulent election.

In 2007, Professor Maurice Iwu , a friend of Atahiru Jega, was drafted from the United States by Senator Andy Uba to lead the electoral body. This professor of pharmacy promised Nigerians that he will conduct a free and fair election even if it is the last sacrifice he will make before he dies.  When Obasanjo came with his do or die rigging format which must stop Atiku and Buhari at all costs, Maurice Iwu superintended over the worst election in the history of Nigeria. During Goubadia’s
time, at least ballot boxes were stuffed with fake ballot papers but during Iwu’s time, ballot papers became useless and areas where elections never held produced winners and the losers are always advised to go to PDP controlled courts. In that same year, General Buhari was rigged out in favor of his kinsman late President Umoru Yar’adua and the later, while disparaging the Maurice Iwu superintended process, promised
to institute electoral reforms. He never lived to fulfil his promise.

In 2011 it was the turn of another fellow comrade and unionist to conduct elections. Prof Jega helped Jonathan and the PDP a lot especially in the north where in areas that are Buhari’s strongholds, the PDP reduced Buhari’s votes and increased Jonathan’s to ensure that the mandatory 25 percent in 2/3 states were met. In the South East where Buhari refused to campaign, the PDP had a field day and inflated the votes of Jonathan and there is not much APC party agents can do. Jonathan became winner and Buhari wept back home to Katsina while Jega smiled to the banks.

In March 2014, I wrote an article titled ’ Presidency 2015: Jonathan and Ijaws to teach Hausa-Fulani Bitter Lesson – Part 1  where I stated that “The fact as I state it now will play out in 2015- APC will surely get more number of votes cast, and meet the constitutional requirement of 25% in 2/3 states of the federation to win the presidency, but  Jonathan will  manipulate the elections and declare himself the President of Nigeria with the help of Attahiru Jega.-and there is nothing the North
can do about it” It took the entire PDP eleven months to discover that what I said on March 3rd is true and that APC is about to win the election, is why they rushed to postpone the February 14 polls. The only difference in the prediction is that a proactive north went to work on Jega and prized him out of the grip of Jonathan. I was following the transmutation of Jega from being a Jonathan boy to being an independent man, ready to give Nigeria a free election.

Curiously, following the widely circulated write-ups, especially among political circles in the north, a jittery northern elites tasked Jega on his loyalty. While the PDP relaxed, believing that Jega will still play ball as expected, the northern elites, traditional and religious leaders after the revelations had series of private talks with Jega, where they demanded to know his allegiance in the forthcoming polls.  In some places some persons threw stones at him and called him a betrayer. They
forced Jega to become neutral with the electoral process. To this effect, Jega started putting in place measures that will eliminate rigging in Nigeria- THE MOST POTENT BEING THE USE OF CARD READER. This device will eliminate 80 percent of the electoral fraud in Nigeria and that is where Jega fell off with the ruling party.

A prominent Northerner wrote to thank me for the write-up exposing how Jega will rig the election for Jonathan. He promised that they will work on Jega and extract a neutrality pledge from him. This they did before end of August 2014. The PDP were doing newspaper, television, and billboard campaigns talking all sorts of irrelevant things until it dawned on them two months to the election that the warning I gave about a year ago that APC will win the election is just about to happen. All efforts by the ruling party to intimidate, blackmail, induce or frustrate Jega to cave in to another electoral manipulation failed. Jega had embezzled enough in INEC, he wants to leave a legacy for his family name. He also doesn’t want to face the wrath of his northern people who are not in the mood to allow a single of their vote counted for
Jonathan, Thus these circumstances had forced Jega to a state of neutrality in the elections.

Jega’s neutrality and innovation of card reader technology, whichever way it came about, is the second  greatest achievement of the Jonathan regime,  the first being  the National Conference he successfully hosted.  The problem with Jega’s innovation is that if it is implemented, the PDP chieftains who scammed Jonathan of billions of
naira in campaign money, transferred same to their personal overseas accounts and made few noises on the pages of newspapers are in trouble of amalgamated loss. They failed to campaign for Jonathan, They failed to distribute money or mobilize people on the grassroots until APC effectively penetrated and mobilized the grassroots, then they woke up and wanted the use of card reader  jettisoned.

Jega’s neutrality and card reading technology will ensure that if Governor Willie Obiano follows the footsteps of his godfather Peter Obi in Anambra State, Anambrarians will simply wait for four years and throw him out, Jega’s card reader simply means that the people of Enugu West Senatorial District can throw away Senator Gilbert Nnaji if he continues his’ siddon look’ approach in the Senate Chambers. Jega’s neutrality means that any other governor under develops Abia State  like Governor T.A. Orji he  will be booted out after four years and  if Labaran Maku is popular in Nasarrawa State, he does not need fear any incumbency factor before becoming governor. Jega’s card reader means that no APC, PDP, APGA OR LP politician will dare impose unpopular candidate on anybody because they know that the electorates are now in charge.

Therefore Jega’s card reader is the panacea to a rigging virus which reared up its head during the Shagari era when Awolowo was allegedly rigged out of Presidential election and probable run-off in 1979 before the infamous Supreme Court interpretation of 2/3 majority threw  Awo’s presidential ambition to the dustbin.

I am a Christian, Cleric and activist with considerable influence within many political, ecclesiastical and professional circles and I am spiritual enough to know that Jesus Christ of Nazareth, Son of the Living God, King of Kings and Lord of Lords,  cannot support electoral robbery, manipulation, rigging or scuttling of the people’s mandate. Therefore any Christian who justifies rigging is working for Lucifer- and I certainly will not work for Lucifer. I have told my colleague Archbishops, Bishops, Apostles, Venerable, Pastors this and most of them have agreed with me in principle, Muslim clerics should educate their colleague accordingly, if their Qur’an does not justify rigging.

Jega can be a devout Muslim, I do not give a damn. He could even marry ten wives and divorce six to balance it four, I do not care so much. Jega can make his beard to be longer than that of Osama Bin Laden and he can even do his own Sallat twenty four times daily which is his business, providing he doesn’t constitute public nuisance and disrupt public peace.  Jega has proven to be a better follower of Jesus Christ
than Prof Maurice Iwu, a knight of the Catholic Church .  Jesus forced Zacheaus in Luke 19 vs 8 to return his loot back and the later said to the Lord (Jesus), “Behold, Lord, half of my possessions I will give to the poor, and if I have defrauded anyone of anything, I will give back four times as much.” Jega is returning back the people’s mandate stolen through years of successive rigging, especially from the Shagari to the Obasanjo era back to the people. He is a hero of democracy, he should be
supported and not vilified. INEC must insist on the use the card reader or else let the military postpone the election and go on with their Interim Government option.

Certainly, God had used Jega to answer the prayer of some Nigerians (including myself) that an institutionalized way of stopping corruption should be kick started. Jega is a hero of democratic innovation who is fighting electoral corruption and Nigerians and the international community  and all progressive minded persons should come to his aide before something worse becomes of Nigeria.

Obinna Akukwe ( Email: ) reports.
*Photo Caption - Prof. Attahiru Jega

[ Masterweb Reports: Obinna Akukwe reports ] - Bola Tinubu, the National Leader of the Nigeria’s leading oppositionparty APC had revealed that Jonathan offered him a Vice Presidency slot underan Interim Govt arrangement, an offer he claimed to have rejected. Femi-FaniKayode, the Head of PDP Campaign Organization had refuted the story, sayingthat it is illusionary imaginations from Tinubu. However, I was personally intimatedof the Interim Govt offer to Tinubu by an equally top PDP chieftain who boastedjokingly that ‘my Tinubu and Buhari’ alliance will soon crumble.
This his allusion to ‘my Tinubu and Buhari’ is based on the fact that he knew that I publicly led some Bishops and that opposed the distribution of money to some of my pastor colleagues on an anti Buhari sentiments and that I was among the people who ensured that some that collected that money did not sell Jesus to PDP. I believe that the Gospel of Jesus is greater than PDP and APC and this party chieftain subscribes to this and my belief that the good, the bad and the ugly are found in both parties.
Early February I was at a sort of meeting bordering on security in the North of Nigeria and afterwards another meeting ensued where some PDP faithful were touting how Jonathan will defeat Buhari during the March28 polls. I mentioned to the August members present who claim direct links with President Jonathan that their principal had already offered a Vice Presidency slot to Tinubu under an Interim Govt arrangement. I was literally shouted down by those who claim (and I know that some of their claims are true) that they are personally close to Jonathan and he never
mentioned it to them. The same persons, a week later, having confirmed the details I gave, contacted me again and this time around, believing that I must be close to either Buhari or Tinubu, asked me about the latest move of the opposition. 
Close to four weeks ago I was informed by a privileged member of the ruling PDP that Tinubu has been offered a VP slot in order to get him to break away from Buhari. This highly placed PDP facilitator, stakeholder and observer intimated that he is in the thick of the discussion and that soon Tinubu will abandon Buhari for Jonathan.  Those allegedly in the thick of the discussions include a retired Military President, select PDP leaders especially from the South West and South South and somebody they believe is working for Sambo, the National Security Adviser (NSA). Mentioning the names I was told is not necessary because my sources will be thoroughly embarrassed.

I was later told that Tinubu rejected the Vice Presidency slot almost instantly. According to my sources, he instead requested that the ruling party defray his campaign expenses which he put at N200 billion naira (N2billionDollars). He also allegedly demanded that the PDP will allow him produce all the Senators from all the APC states in the South West, including Kwara and Edo States, from Niger Delta and North Central respectively. When I inquired what they will decide on the
Tinubu project, I was told that that though Jonathan did not mind fulfilling Tinubu’s alternative request, the PDP leaders in the South West rejected the idea of allowing him produce eighteen Senators all by himself, viewing it as politically dangerous. This money is still chicken change to a party that had stacked nothing less that N3 trillion
naira through shady oil deals in readiness for the elections, of which I am aware of some of the deals. 

Tinubu, under pressure to give a green light, abandoned the discussion on the pretext of giving the entire idea a second thought. PDP leaders were still waiting for his second thought when he was seen at Chatham House with Muhammadu Buhari, the Presidential Flag bearer of the opposition APC. The Chatham House speech of Buhari did an irreparable damage to Jonathan’s image among the international community and the PDP had seen Tinubu as giving the impression that negotiations are ongoing and then he went on to sponsor a Chatham house embarrassment on them. According to my sources, it was Femi Fani-Kayode who decoded that Tinubu
had abandoned the plot and warned the party that the best thing to do is to cage the Lion (Tinubu) before it was too late. 

The current plot by the PDP is to stop Tinubu at all cost, since he failed to deliver the South West vote to Jonathan even when PDP was ready to give him his demand of N200 Billion naira. I learnt that Tinubu’si mage is to be terribly damaged, then series of harassment, trumped up  canvassed by a former presidential spokesman, has been rejected even within many PDP circles including even Jonathan himself.   A top APC Chieftain whom I met to follow up the political transactions, initially said he was ignorant of the contents of the negotiations but after some days confirmed that though an offer of N200 Billion was made it was the PDP that made the offer to defray Tinubu’s campaign expenses. I was informed that though Tinubu was averse
to the Interim arrangement, Obasanjo’scaution to the former governor reinforced Tinubu’s stance.  My take on all these is that PDP approached Tinubu to help sell the Yoruba people to Jonathan and abandon Buhari the manner he sold Ribadu in 2011 for a couple of billions of naira. Tinubu rejected the Interim Govt offer, made his own offer which the PDP accepted in part (monetary aspect) and rejected the issue of being allowed to manipulate and produce the Senators and House of Reps members
from APC States in the South West in an election that will hold on the same day. 

Tinubu probably got another advice and decided to stick to Buhari and PDP got enraged. Those denying that there was no interim govt offer are also lying because even NSA Dasuki and Babangida has been discreetly campaigning that Northern Emirs and leaders accept an interim Govt option headed by a northerner. Even Shagari according to reports favors the idea. The news is all over Sokoto, Zamfara, Kebbi and creating division among their political elites with the Interim Government option getting gradual sympathy.  

The loser in all these heist is the masses. Why an offer and acceptance of a probable N200 billion naira must be given when such amount can build two second Niger Bridge or four brand new Enugu-Port Harcourt and Enugu-Onitsha expressway. Tinubu, Babangida, Dasuki, Femi-Fani Kayode, Bode George, Kashamu and all the people involved in this Interim Govt cum N200billion naira betrayal deal should stop denying the truth. Spending such billions on a political expedition is wrong and those
buying, selling and making merchandise of the impoverished Nigerian people, must repent now before God Almighty allows that self-inflicted crisis that will bring in a bloody military revolution already brooding in the atmosphere.  A word is enough for the thieves.

Obinna Akukwe ( Email:  ) reports.
*Photo Caption - Bola Tinubu

[ Masterweb Reports: Lawrence Chinedu Nwobu reports ] - Every year Forbes publishes the list of the richest people in the world amongst which some Nigerians have prominently featured in recent times, chief among them Aliko Dangote with an estimated net worth of $14.7 billion in 2015 down from $25 billion in 2014. Other Nigerians such Ms Folorunsho Alakija with an estimated net worth of $1.9 billion, Femi Otedola with an estimated net worth of $1 billion, Abdulrahman Rabiu with a net worth of $1 billion and Mike Adenuga with an estimated net worth of $4 billion also made it to the Forbes list of richest Nigerians. Their predominant source of wealth and primary business concerns are not surprisingly Nigeria’s corrupt oil/ gas industry, no doubt linked to the infamous oil bloc patronage system which Nigerian leaders past and present have variously used to set up those fronting for them or reward those connected to them.

Within Africa the number of billionaires in 2015 remains same as 2014 at 24, while globally Bill Gates retains the top spot as the world’s richest man. The Forbes list also records 290 new billionaires with China alone accounting for 71, while young people under the age of 40 account for 46 of the new global billionaires. The staying power of most existing billionaires and the rise of so many new billionaires in spite of a global recession that is still biting demonstrate how resilient industrialists and businesses can be. Researching and collating data on the world’s richest persons is definitely a challenging task particularly in third world countries where accurate statistics are hard to come by and also given the penchant of industrialists and businesses to hide their true net worth through various schemes to reduce their tax liabilities. This tax dodging scheme exists even in advanced economies where statistics and regulatory regimes are more reliable.
Forbes therefore deserves commendation for their efforts every year to pile through the mountains of statistics and known assets which they use to make estimates of the financial standing of each billionaire. While this is laudable it also provides room for wrong information and in the case of Nigeria that is exactly the case. In publishing the list of the richest Nigerians Forbes exhibited its ignorance of the Nigerian society and the true owners of wealth in the Nigerian system. They can be forgiven for classing Nigeria as a normal country and thus make its estimate of the richest Nigerians on that basis. Normality may be true of most other nations from which the Forbes list of richest billionaires was obtained unfortunately Nigeria is not a normal country.

This should be self evident from the fact that while billionaires from other countries are mainly engaged in manufacturing being their predominant source of wealth in Nigeria it is the oil and gas “patronage” industry from the government that constitutes the primary source of wealth for the billionaires. Indeed the fact that Saudi Arabia that boasts the largest oil deposits in the world but where oil bloc patronage systems do not exist has no billionaires listed as beneficiaries of the oil and gas industry further highlights the Nigerian abnormality. While Forbes has listed some seeming industrialists as Nigeria’s richest persons, the fact remains that Nigeria’s richest individuals are politicians and not industrialists. It is understandable that politicians not being industrialists shield their assets and finances from public view. But enough information still exists in the public domain to determine the wealth of Nigerian politicians.

The biggest industry in Nigeria is government and this explains why existing billionaire industrialists make their wealth through patronage systems that derive from the government. Thus government officials and not industrialists are undeniably Nigeria’s richest individuals. More than $3 billion of late General Sanni Abacha’s loot, a former head of state has been returned and this is just some of the loot traced directly to him. In 1983 a former minister Alhaji Umaru Dikko was reported to have stolen the then equivalent of £2 billion. Former heads of state Generals Ibrahim Babangida and Abdulsalami Abubakar are estimated to have looted more than $10 billion each. Asiwaju Bola Tinubu the godfather, who controls a whole region and owns tax collecting firms, hotels, media houses, tolled highways and other sundry businesses is reputed to be worth more than $16 billion and thus easily the richest Nigerian.

There are so many such hidden or not so hidden billionaires in Nigeria’s government circles that are by far richer than the individuals estimated by Forbes to be the richest Nigerians. Next time Forbes should do a more in-depth analysis of Nigeria’s richest individuals including government and former government officials. That is the only way they can arrive at an accurate assessment of Nigeria’s real richest individuals.

Lawrence Chinedu Nwobu (Email: ) reports.
*Photo Caption - Aliko Dangote

[ Masterweb Reports: Intersociety reportsPart 1 - (Democracy & Good Governance, Onitsha Nigeria, 7th March 2015)-It is criminal borrowing when a State Government that ought not to borrow owing to availability and abundance of material and capital resources; borrows and becomes a serial borrower. It is also criminal borrowing when what has been borrowed is made incapable of repaying itself owing to its channelization into crooked, white-elephant and unproductive sectors (i.e. payment of government and civil service wage bills and diversion and misappropriation of public funds). Another form of criminal borrowing is where a State Government conceals and suppresses its actual borrowing financial sheets in a manner that breaches the law, misinforms and misleads the public.
On the other hand, governance deficiencies are obtainable where the fundamental essence of public governance (social services provision and delivery) is in shambles resulting in public accountability crisis, energy crisis, health crisis, food crisis, shelter crisis (including children of the street and children in the street), water & waste management crisis, environmental crisis, education crisis, infrastructure and maintenance crisis, public wage crisis, etc. Governance deficiencies are fundamentally driven by corruption and armchair policies and actions leading to inability, incapability and unwillingness to effect adequate non borrowing resources mobilization. Government is deficit when a State is left in deep financial crisis resulting in huge debts and diminishing capacity of the electorates to feel the presence and impact of the government.
From our recent study of the state of public governance in Nigeria’s six geopolitical zones and the Federal Capital Territory, criminal borrowings are common place in Nigeria’s three axis of wealth: Lagos State, the South-south or Oil Niger Delta and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The referenced three axis of Nigeria’s wealth ought not to borrow to govern. Lagos State, for instance, is a N450B economy including N300B annual Internally Generated Revenues (IGRs) and over N100B annual federal allocations. The FCT is the contemporary capital of Nigeria with multi billion naira tax revenues annually. The Niger Delta or South-south zone, comprising six States of Rivers, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Delta, Edo and Cross River, is the country’s oil liquid cash capital and sole beneficiary of the country’s constitutional 13 per cent oil derivation proceeds with the States of Rivers, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa and Delta getting the lion’s share.
In spite of these huge revenue potentials and realizations, the referenced three axis of Nigeria’s wealth have borrowed and borrowed to the point that they have become criminal and serial borrowers. Today, Lagos State alone, has cumulatively borrowed at least N501.2B, out of total of N740B owed by the Southwest geopolitical zone. The South-south zone or Oil Niger Delta has total criminal loans of at least N717.9B, while the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) is burdened with at least N91.3B teething loans. In other words, the referenced three axis of wealth in the country have total criminal debts of at least N1, 332.818 trillion or about $7B (based on N190.00 per USD).

This is out of the total sub-national debts of N2, 205 trillion or about $11B cumulatively owed by the whole 36 States and the FCT; comprising sub-national local and external debts as at 31st December 2013 and 31st December 2014 respectively (source: Debts Management Office, Nigeria 2015). The social wealth creation, distribution and spread in the referenced areas is found by our findings to be acutely uneven and lumped in the hands of privileged few including thieving current and past public office holders.
The other aspect of criminal borrowings, which has to do with concealment and suppression of the actual borrowing financial sheets with intent to breach the law and defraud, misinform and mislead the public was found to be common place in many States including some States of the Southeast zone. Out of the two sub-national debts categories (local and foreign) owed by the 36 States and the FCT; the referenced sharp practices are common place in local debts category. In other words, while the States and the FCT’s external debts’ records maintained by the Debts Management Office (DMO) are reasonably authentic, the reverse is the case in the area of local or internal debts’ records also maintained by the DMO. The Nigeria’s Debts Management Office (DMO) was created in October 2000 to centrally manage the country’s debts.
The authenticity of the sub-national external debts of the 36 States and the FCT is derived from the fact that the Federal Government of Nigeria serves as collateral for the States and the FCT seeking to borrow externally. But in the aspect of local debts, the processes and records appear to have been left in the hands of the affected States, their Houses of Assembly and the lending individuals and institutions. In transmitting the records of local debts to the Debts Management Office by the affected States, bargaining and persuasive methods are applied and this has extensively encouraged manipulations and suppression of records leading to the affected States local debts profiles being under-reported by the DMO. This is owing to the fact that there appears to be is no existing law of the Federation making it compelling and punitive for States to transmit the actual records under reference to the DMO. It only requires the integrity and openness of any of the affected State Governments to come clean with true picture of its local debts.
Unfortunately, integrity and openness is found to be the direct opposite of public policies and actions of most of the affected States. In Imo State, for instance, its local debts records at the DMO saying the State owes only N12.6B as local debts as at December 2013 is mostly likely fallacious, criminal and misleading. The State is independently accused of owing more than N60B. As a matter of fact, a former governor recently disclosed that the State was in cumulative (local and foreign) debts of over N100B. In the case of Abia State, its DMO’s quoted local debts of N31.7B as at December 2013 may most likely be untrue. The Orji Uzor Kalu’s former regime was once accused of incurring total debts of N29B. In Anambra State, the latest DMO records saying the State now owes N3.02B as local debts are likely misleading because in its early 2014 records, the State was credited with a total local debt of N6.2B. How possible is it for the State to repay N3.18B in six months of 2014?

On the other hand, the DMO’s records saying Anambra State’s external debt as at December 2014 was $45.1M; is not only convincing but also shows that the State borrowed $21M in the last six or seven months of 2014. The State’s external debts as at December 2013 were $24M. The total of N72.7B, which the DMO gave as total local debts of the Southeast as at December 2013, is acutely under-represented. The zone may be in actual local debts of over N220B in the period under review.
Similar criminal situations are common place in Ebonyi with N13.26B quoted by the DMO as its local debts; Enugu with N12.06B as its current local debts; and other States in South-south, Northeast, Northwest, North-central and Southwest geopolitical zones. The referenced ugly situations are compounded by the fact that the DMO has not updated the local debts records of the 36 States and the FCT for 2014 fiscal year.
Though the Debts Management Office has adjusted upwards the total local debts of the 36 States and the FCT from N1, 467 trillion in December 2013 to N1, 707 trillion in December 2014; showing that the referenced States and the FCT further incurred extra N239.5B in 2014 fiscal year, but this has not been included in its State-by-State breakdown posted on its official website. If this is added, the individual States’ local debts figures will be higher.
It is independently held that another N1 trillion hidden and criminal debts of local contents belonging to the 36 States may exist in the country’s six geopolitical zones. In the Southeast, at least N150B local debts may have been hidden with Imo and Abia States taking the lion’s share; followed by Enugu and Abia States. Anambra State’s hidden debts might have commenced in 2015 fiscal year. In the South-south, over N150B hidden debts may exist particularly in Rivers State, which officially owes N138.04B (both local and foreign). In the Southwest, over N200B hidden debts may exist particularly in Lagos State, which is already indebted officially to the tune of 501.2B (local and external). In the North-central, Northeast and Northwest zones another N500B States’ hidden debts may exist.
It is important to note that these internal debts of the States under reference do not include public and civil service wage debts, which worth hundreds of billions of naira across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. In Bauchi State alone, a whopping sum of N11B is owed the State’s retired workforce. Several months of salaries and allowances are owed active workforces in several States of the Federation.
Conversely, in the entitlements of top government appointees and elected officials including security votes and other sundry allowances; they are deducted, collected pocketed at source leading to criminal governance and governance deficiencies being common place in the affected geopolitical zones and States.
Emeka Umeagbalasi, B.Sc. (Hons) Criminology & Security Studies
Board Chairman, International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law
+2348174090052; Email:,
Uzochukwu Oguejiofor, Esq., Head, Campaign & Publicity Department
Chiugo Onwuatuegwu, Esq., Head, Democracy & Good Governance Program
2015 Polls: How Criminal Borrowings Grounded Good Governance & Turned Nigeria’s Geopolitical Zones Into A Zoo Of Human Habitation
In the first part of this publication, dated 7th March 2015, Nigerians and watchers of the country’s socio-political events were led into the state of criminal borrowings and governance deficiencies in the country’s geopolitical zones leading to heavy defeat of the fundamental essence of public governance (social services provision and delivery) resulting in the country’s geopolitical zones being turned into a zoo of human habitation with the looters and their cronies making themselves hegemonic ruling animals over others.
This publication is generally intended by the leadership of International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law to bring to the fore the fundamental determinants in the 2015 polls so as to open the eyes of the electorates and expose the ruination of democratic governance in Nigeria’s geopolitical zones by the present crop of politicians particularly the State Governors; for the grand purpose of guiding the electorates to make conscientious electoral choice during the referenced polls based on the state of social affairs in their States. It is also intended to demystify some un-repentant political crooks that use media and compromised CSOs to canonize themselves and their political puppets by purporting change or transformation.
The political crooks under reference, who continuously pontificate and canonize themselves; did not worth N5M cash and properties other than their ancestral houses before they became elective or appointive public office holders; but today, they own TV, Radio and Newspaper plazas and other multi billion naira properties within and outside Nigeria. These they illicitly acquired using monies they borrowed criminally using phony excuses and public projects. They buy over hitherto active and outspoken CSOs and lawyers and use them to undermine the course of justice administration for the purpose of escaping its wrath. They are majorly concentrated in the Southwest zone. Remnants are also found in the South-south zone.
Owing to recent grave allegations of criminal enrichment leveled against present and past top public office holders in the country, we have been prompted to investigate and expose the sorry state of finances of all the 36 States and the FCT particularly as it concerns criminal borrowings. The fundamental part of our findings is that the referenced huge loans were borrowed for the purposes of criminal diversion, misappropriation including legitimate and illegitimate public office entitlements and white elephant projects. In Lagos State, for instance, hundreds of millions of dollars were borrowed to resuscitate 268 public schools, but in Anambra State, over one thousand public and missionary schools were resuscitated under Mr. Peter Obi administration without borrowing a dime internally and externally.
We also discovered that most of the loans borrowed were not capable of repaying themselves; despite their spiral interest rates. The referenced loans were also dominated by stomach economic purposes. That is to say they were borrowed to offset public and civil service wage arrears as well as for the purpose of criminal diversions using phony projects or project simulations.
Skyrocketed cost of governance is a common place in most of the States, leading to serial borrowing of loans to defray them. We also found that monthly Security votes of the Governors constitute a chunk of high cost of governance.
In Anambra State, for instance, monthly security votes recorded spiral increases in 2014; from N420M a month (5B yearly) in March 2014 to N625M in April/May 2014; and to about N850M in the last quarter of 2014 or about N10B yearly. In Abia State, around N10B is spent annually on security votes. Similar situations apply in other States across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The reported N10B annual security votes of Anambra State alone constitute about 20% of the State’s annual block federal allocations.
In all, the States of Lagos, Ogun, Rivers, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Delta, Kano, Kaduna, Anambra, the FCT and to an extent; Abia, Imo and Borno, ought not to borrow a dime for the purpose of public governance. This is because of their bountiful internally generated revenue and oil proceeds’ potentials and realizations. Also resorting to serial borrowings is a barefaced indication of deficit integrity of the governing authorities in the affected States; making it impossible for them to source for social development funds externally through development partners and donor agencies. The Obi’s administration in Anambra State, for instance, is one of the very few States that successfully applied non loan massive external resources mobilization policy.
Geopolitical/State-By-State Breakdown Of Sub-national Local & External Debts:
Southwest Zone:
External Debts Local Debts Total In Naira
Lagos-$1, 169.7B (N222.36B) N278.86B N501.22B
Ogun-$109.1M (N20.1B) N58.38B N78.48B
Oyo-$72.3M (N13.6B) N19.1B N32.7B
Osun-$74.1M (N14.6B) N41.4B N56B
Ondo-$52.6M (N9.9B) N30.88B N40.78B
Ekiti-$46.4M (N8.7B) N22.37B N31.07B
Total=$1, 522.2B (N289.2B) N451.01B N740.26B
(Note: In calculating the States referenced external sub-national debts, N190.00 per USD exchange was used)

South-south Zone:
External Debts Local Debts Total In Naira
Rivers-$44.7M (N8.5B) N129.54B N138.04B
A.Ibom-$58.8M (N11.2B) N125.03B N136.23B
C. River-$141.4M (N26.7B) N116.06B N142.76B
Bayelsa-&34.8M (N6.6B) N122.8 (est.) N128.4B
Delta-$24.2M (N4.5B) N102.1B N106.6B
Edo-$123.1M (N23.7B) N48.19B N71.89B
Total=$427.0M (N81.2B) N527.93B N717.95B
(Note: In calculating the States referenced external sub-national debts, N190.00 per USD exchange was used)
Southeast Zone:
External Debts Internal Debts Total In Naira
Anambra-$45.1M (N8.5B) N3.025B N11.525B
Abia-$33.7M (N6.3B) N31.73B N38.03B
Imo-$53.0M (N10.7B) N12.66B N23.36B
Enugu-$68.9M (N13.1B) N12.06B N25.16B
Ebonyi-$45.4M (N8.6B) N13.23B N21.83
Total=$246.1M (N47.5B) N72.72B N116.92B
(Note: In calculating the States referenced external sub-national debts, N190.00 per USD exchange was used)
Northwest Zone:
External Debts Internal Debts Total In Naira
Kaduna-$234.4M (N44.6B) N9.83B N54.43B
Kano-$57.9M (N11.3B) N32.20B N43.50B
Katsina-$78.9M (N14.8B) N269M N15.60B
Jigawa-$35.7M (N6.80B) N1.61B N8.41B
Kebbi-$43.7M (N8.3B) N857M N9.15B
Sokoto-$44.8M (N8.5B) N5.73B N14.23B
Zamfara-$33.5M (N6.6B) N28.21B N34.81B
Total=$532.7M (N100.9B) N78.72B N180.16B
(Note: In calculating the States referenced external sub-national debts, N190.00 per USD exchange was used)
Northeast Zone:
External Debts Internal Debts Total In Naira
Borno-$23.0M (N4.4B) N23.94B N28.34B
Adamawa-$46.7M (N9.0B) N15.97B N24.97B
Taraba-$22.7M (N4.3B) N13.88B N18.18B
Bauchi-$87.5M (N16.5B) N16.82B N33.32B
Gombe-$39.5M (N7.5B) N27.99B N35.49B
Yobe-$31.2M (N5.9B) N1.22B N7.022B
Total=$250.6M (N47.5B) N99.74B N147.32B
(Note: In calculating the States referenced external sub-national debts, N190.00 per USD exchange was used)
North-Central Zone:
External Debts Internal Debts Total In Naira
Kwara-$52.7M (N10.5B) N22.41B N32.91B
Nasarawa-$49.9M (N9.4B) N28.84B N38.24B
Niger-$44.7M (N8.5B) N24.73B N33.23B
Kogi-$35.7M (N6.9B) N7.10B N14.009B
Plateau-$30.9M (N5.9B) N56.41B N62.31B
Benue-$33M (N6.3B) N24.98B N31.28B
Total=$246.9M (N47.0B) N160.05B N212.007B
(Note: In calculating the States referenced external sub-national debts, N190.00 per USD exchange was used)
Federal Capital Territory (FCT):
External Debts=$36.6M (N7B), Internal Debts= N84.32B
Total In Naira=N91.32B
Summarized Findings:

  1. Total States Sub-national External Debts for South= $2, 195B (N417.6B)
  2. Total States Sub-national External Debts for North including the FCT=$1,066B (N202B)
  3. Total States Sub-national External Debts for the country=$3, 265B
  4. Total States Sub-national Local Debts for the South=N1, 044 trillion
  5. Total States Sub-national Local Debts for the North including the FCT=N423.3B
  6. Total States Sub-national Local Debts for the country=N1, 467.9 trillion
  7. Total States Sub-national Local Debts updated by DMO covering 2014 but yet to be added on State-by-State basis=N1, 707 trillion
  8. Total States Sub-national Local Debts borrowed in 2014 fiscal year captured by the DMO=N239.5B
  9. Total States Sub-national Local and External Debts for the South=N1, 575 trillion
  10. Total States Sub-national Local and External Debts for the North including the FCT=N630.82B
  11. Grand Total of the States and the FCT’s Local and External Debts in Naira= N2, 205. 9 trillion
  12. Lagos State is the most indebted State in Nigeria owing more than Northwest and North-central zones put together
  13. The Southwest is the most indebted Zone in Nigeria with N740. 26B, followed by the South-south Zone with N717.95B.

Source: Debts Management Office (DMO) of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 2015
Observation: It is observed that the DMO records in the area of the States sub-national local debts did not include the 2014 fiscal year or monies borrowed locally by the 36 States and the FCT in 2014 fiscal year. That is to say that the DMO’s last update as represented above is that of December 31st 2013. But in the area of the States sub-national external debts, the DMO’s update covers that of the 2014 fiscal year.
Also while the DMO’s records as per the States’ external debts are reasonably authentic, the contrary is reasonably the case in the area of the States’ internal debts. Records transmitted to the DMO by the affected States have been found to be likely dubious and manipulated. It is likely there are hundreds of billions of naira worth of hidden and criminal borrowings across several States in the country’s six geopolitical zones.
Emeka Umeagbalasi, B.Sc. (Hons) Criminology & Security Studies
Board Chairman, International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law
+2348174090052; Email:,
Uzochukwu Oguejiofor, Esq., Head, Campaign & Publicity Department
Chiugo Onwuatuegwu, Esq., Head, Democracy & Good Governance Program

[ Masterweb Reports: Maureen Chigbo reports ] – Ostensibly, Nigeria is fighting an unconventional war with Boko Haram, the violent Islamic sect which says that Western Education is dangerous. The war has raged since 2010 but got worse recently with the sect conquering territories in the Nigeria with the intention of establishing an Islamic caliphate.  But a deep look into the happenstance in the country shows that Nigeria is fighting more than an unconventional war.  It is in fact being bombarded by numerous foreign interest groups representing America, Britain, Canada, South Africa, on one hand, and Russia, China, Israel on the other. The interest groups battle for or against Nigeria is strictly to protect their own selfish national interest while pretending to be helping Nigerian government either through the opposition political party, All Progressives Congress, APC, or the Peoples Democratic Party, the ruling party. 
The reasons for their engagement in the Nigerian enterprise ranges from economic, political to social issues, which affect these countries as they fight to either make Nigeria strong or weak so that it will be ineffective internally, internationally and in regional affairs in Africa. Those who want to weaken Nigeria premise their case on the fact that a strong Nigeria, which is becoming increasingly defiant, will not serve their interest and could pose a threat to their determining affairs in other countries in West Africa and Africa in general.
America and Britain share a common purpose in wanting a weak leader to emerge in Nigeria. That is why they have been most reluctant to offer real help apart from paying lip service to the helping the country in its fight against Boko Haram. The reason for their action is hinged on the fact that President Goodluck Jonathan who they perceive as weak and clueless has thumb his nose on them by having the guts to sign into the law the same sex laws contrary to their expectation.
On January 7, 2014, when President Jonathan signed the Same-Sex Prohibition Act, United States, Britain, member countries of the European Union and Canada objected to the law on grounds that it was an infringement on fundamental human rights of people with same sex orientation. David Cameron, British prime minister and American President Barack Obama heavily criticised Nigerian. In fact, James Entwistle, American Ambassador to Nigerian threatened to sanction Nigeria by withdrawing his country’s aid to Nigeria to fight HIV and AIDS. Entwistle, who said he was aware that “the issue of same-sex marriage was very controversial all over the world, including within the United States where 17 states out of 50 had endorsed it, but others still reject its legality”, added that: “the issue that we see and I am speaking as a friend of Nigeria is that as I read the bill, it looks to me that it puts significant restrictions on the freedoms of assembly and expression; in my opinion which applies especially in advanced democracies, once government begins to say something in these areas, freedom no longer applies. It seems to me that this is a very worrisome precedent.”
Entwistle’s worrisome posture and threats of sanctions smacks of double standard from the way America reacted when Russia signed its own gay laws. As Professor Kayode Soremekun, lecturer, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria, rightly observed US never “even when the West had their misgivings about Russia’s anti-gay law, they have not gone threatening them with sanctions and punitive action. We are not reckoned with in the international arena where we are getting assistance for HIV/AIDS, Malaria treatment drugs, polio virus crusade among other mundane issues”.
Apart from the LGBT issues, The Western countries are against the incursion of China into the economic sector of Nigeria, especially in the oil and gas sector and the rehabilitation of the country’s rail sector. The West has dominated the oil sector in more than 50 years of oil and gas exploration in the country. This point was clearly articulated by Chineizu, a classic and iconic author, in his article entitled: Soyinka’s 60 Reasons — An Investigative Report. Chinweizu hinged western antagonism against Nigeria to its signing of a $23 billion oil deal with China in May 2010. Chinweizu posits that the oil deal has much to do with Wole Soyinka’s (whom he implied is working for the British intelligence) pro-General Muhammadu Buhari position, or with the orchestrated momentum of the Buhari campaign despite his being prima facie the Boko Haram candidate.
According to Chinweizu, a report about that China deal concluded that: “Western policy on Nigeria is driven by the super-profits generated from the extraction of oil and its processing. While publicly the US and its allies proclaim the need for democracy and openness, this is window dressing. Anything that impedes their drive for profits, whether from local opposition or from a rival nation, will be dealt with ruthlessly when required.” The report further stated that “the latest moves by China will have caused consternation in the boardrooms of the big oil companies, and countermeasures are all but inevitable.”
Chinweizu links this to the events now unfolding in the 2015 elections implying  that Britain and America’s pro pro-Buhari campaign momentum are part of the countermeasures; an effort at regime change by orchestrated propaganda. He traces Western antagonism to Nigeria’s signing of a $23 billion deal with China to build three oil refineries and a petrochemical plant which will be located in Lagos, Kebbi and Bayelsa States. The refineries would have a combined capacity of 900,000 barrels per day (bpd), double the expected domestic demand of 450,000 bpd by the time they are completed in 2015. There was also the report that state-owned China National Offshore Oil Corporation, CNOOC, planned to buy up to six billion barrels of Nigerian reserves in 2009. There was a letter from the CNOOC which expressed interest in the 23 prime offshore fields where Shell, Total, Chevron and ExxonMobil currently operate. “If this were to succeed, it would… mark a significant change in policy for the Nigerian government….. The price of the deal is reported to be between $30 billion and $50 billion… . The Chinese deal may well lead to further tensions with the US,…. He (Goodluck Ebele Jonathan, GEJ) plans to introduce a sweeping package of reforms that will result in the privatisation of this state-owned company. While this is in line with US demands, it will inevitably open up further opportunities for China,” Chinweizu wrote.
This, according to him, is the real offence by Nigeria “—opening the gate for China to access Nigeria’s resources for the benefit of ordinary Nigerians and, above all, displacing the big boys from their existing oil blocks.” The writer went on to describe how similar offences were dealt with in the recent past by foreign powers in other countries. “In the Democratic Republic of Congo, China’s attempts to get an oil deal were thwarted by the countermeasures of the United States and the International Monetary Fund. But in the more complex situation in Nigeria, the countermeasures would take time to orchestrate and implement–and to disguise so as to fool Nija mumus”, writes Chinweizu.
He did not state if the oil deal had been concluded. But he said that “even if it hasn’t, the fact that it was being considered would be cause for retribution by the Western powers. Nigeria’s opening to China, initiated by these two deals, would be a beginning of Nigeria’s economic liberation.  Whereas the case of the DRC was dealt with swiftly by the IMF and the US, the case of Nigeria would call for more elaborate and convoluted countermeasures. Hence, they are manifesting five years later. “You don’t dare jeopardise the super-profits of the oil giants and expect to get away with it—not unless you are a Vladimir Putin, with control over a big nuclear arsenal, which GEJ doesn’t have,” Chinweizu said.
If the Western countries who own the multinational oil companies are involved in the war against Nigeria for economic reasons, American government led by Barack Obama is particularly interested in what is happening in the 2015 election apart from the ongoing war against insurgency. This is because of the well-known fact that David Axelrod, who was the architect of Obama’s election and re-election campaign, is involved in the campaign efforts of General Muhammadu Buhari, All Progressives Congress presidential candidate in the forthcoming March 28, presidential election in Nigeria. Axelrod’s firm APKD based in Chicago was hired by Nigeria’s opposition party, APC to ensure victory for its presidential candidate who was a former military dictator.  This may explain why the White house has refused to grant aid Nigeria sought for many initiatives including the fight against Boko Haram.
The Obama administration refused to do anything but pay lip service to Nigeria’s requests. But it has used public and private channels to internationally magnify every failure Nigeria’s government experienced. Since the involvement of Axelrod’s firm, relations between the two nations have significantly deteriorated, with the US refusing to sell arms to Nigeria, a significant reduction in the purchase of Nigeria’s oil, and the cancellation of a military training agreement between Nigerian and the United States of America. The cancellation of the military training by the Nigerian government in 2014 signaled the worsening relations between the two countries even though the Buhari led Nigerian opposition used the US government position as a validation for their claim that the Nigerian government was a failure.
Axelrod’s firm admitted to doing work on Behalf of Buhari’s All Progressives Congress party in the past but claimed to have ceased it ties in March 2014 after the Islamist terror group Boko Haram kidnapped about 200 school girls from Chibok. However, emails sent between senior APC party members and advisers show that contrary to the firm’s claims, AKPD has quietly continued to perform political work on Buhari’s behalf as he fights to unseat President Jonathan. For instance, in a series of messages between senior APC officials and advertisers from September 2014 to late January 2015, AKPD polling and other work are repeatedly discussed. “The meeting went well and the report well received. (Governor Rotimi Amaechi) will meet with the AKPD team tomorrow to discuss the facilitation of the even but no dates fixed yet,” APC member Olubunmi Adetunmbi wrote in September 23 email to top Buhari adviser Kayode Fayemi, according to Washington Free Beacon.  AKPD’s work is again mentioned in a separate chain of emails sent between Buhari’s running mate, Yemi Osinbajo and Fayemi. “I also think the AKPD surveys also clearly showed that the South West is the battle ground for this election,” Oshibanjo writes in a discussion about boosting election turnouts for the APC.
This notwithstanding, America and Britain are suspected to have influenced South Africa not to sell arms to Nigeria which eventually culminated in cash-for-arms scandal which broke last year which strained relations between South Africa and Nigeria. South Africa has seized the money which Nigeria imported into the country to buy arms through the black market.
However, America’s close ally Israel also has its reason for being interested in the ongoing war in the country. Israel whose government led by Benjamin Netanyahu whose relations with the White House is tensed right now, is also similarly weighing in the internecine war in the country for purely national interest. In his article entitled: “Israel Will Determine Winner of Nigeria’s Presidential Election” published in Daily Trust of Tuesday, February 24, Ahmed Yahaya-Joe explained that the Isreali interest manifested when President Goodluck Jonathan presented to the National Assembly the 2014 budget proposal for Nigeria’s security architecture, “It included a pitch for a “Wise Internet Network Harvest Analyzer System, Open Source Internet Monitoring System and Personal Internet Surveillance System” put at an estimated cost of $61.2mllon. It was not until Elbit Systems, a ranking firm in the Israeli military-industrial complex broke the news on its website that it had sealed a deal with the Jonathan administration for $40million to monitor and control the internet and all other forms of telecommunications that Nigerians realised that “Big Brother” had already sneaked up on them.
Israel could also be working to ensure that its relations with Nigeria remains cordial, especially  with the fact that President Jonathan’s is the first Nigerian leader to pay a State visit to Israel in October 2014. Nigeria also abstained from the UN vote to make Palestine an Independent State which helped Israel’s position against its arch enemy. It is also believed that Israel could be supplying military wares to the country in exchange for supply of oil.
Similarly, Russia and China are in the war in Nigeria to protect their own interest. Russia could be helping Nigeria militarily to spite US for the role it is playing in galvanizing western countries to oppose its support for Ukraine separatists. Realnews gathered that Nigeria bought tanks and helicopters it is using to fight Boko Haram from Russia.
Also, China is supporting Nigeria militarily and has trained some of the country’s soldiers in counter terrorism warfare. One of the brigadier generals who was trained returned to the country but was assassinated recently in Maiduguri, Borno State, by some rogue elements of the military who alleged that he was the one who betrayed the generals who were sympathetic to the Boko Haram.
The Western interest in the 2015 elections is shown by reports from some foreign media. Major foreign media organisations and think-tanks have written extensively about the general elections. The latest group is the Bow Group, a conservative think-tank based in the United Kingdom. A report entitled: Exposing and Defeating Boko Haram published on the Bow Group’s website and authored by Jacob Zen, a research analyst, who has written extensively about Boko Haram and Northern Nigeria, warned the United States of America on meddling in the politics of Nigeria. “The US is playing a dangerous game,” it says. “There are concerns in the international community and Nigeria that the U.S. Democratic Party or its advisers may be associating themselves with northern Nigerian politicians, despite reported links to Boko Haram. “Any political pact between US officials and the APC carries risks – the US must adopt a neutral approach to the Nigerian elections and political landscape,” the report says. The group also calls for the immediate commission of an international investigation that can bring sanctions against political and business leaders in Nigeria and abroad who are financing Boko Haram.
Also, Alexander Nekrassov, a former senior advisor to the Kremlin and an internationally renowned political analyst, in his article further revealed Russian’s interest in the 2015 election in Nigeria and probably its preference for the Peoples Democratic Party. Nekrassov described the All Progressives Congress and its leadership as “Muslim extremists”, citing concerns within Russia that “losing Nigeria to Muslim fundamentalists is simply a no go”. He also highlighted predictions by Russian military analysts of a rise in violence leading up to the presidential elections, stating “it is worth remembering that the leading APC candidate, Muhammadu Buhari, has been accused of inciting a violent uprising after losing the 2011 presidential election, resulting in nearly 1,000 deaths”.
Despite the antics of the foreign powers in the country, Nigeria is confidently and successfully waging the war against Boko Haram terrorists and has recover some of the territories which the terrorists captured previously. With the intensification of the war efforts by a regional force comprising Niger, Chad and Cameroun, Boko Haram is being routed with thousands being killed by the Nigerian troops who have gained more confidence with all the new armaments including aircrafts and warships which the federal government bought for them.
An intelligence sources disclosed that some of the successes recorded in recovery of big towns in the North-East were due to deployment of new strategies, improved disciplinary measures, sincerity on the part of participating countries in the regional alliance and the acquisitions of latest equipment. In the past, colonels have led direct attacks in accordance with military tradition but because of the large scale desertions recorded, military generals then decided to directly lead the war and this has greatly boosted morale of the soldiers. Realnews gathered that some of the troops that earlier deserted have returned while others have expressed desire to return to the front.
Consequently, “With acquisition of new equipment from various sources and the specialised training of the troops on guerrilla warfare, the military indirectly called the bluff of some deceptive western countries who are now trying to save face by claiming to work with Nigeria’s neighboring countries. This must be the reason Canadian military which was participating in the US sponsored training in neigboruing Niger was asked to withdraw.  “The effective collaboration and mutual relationship with our neighbours is paying off as they now realised that inaction can pose disasters to their countries too,” the source said. The military is also trying to capture the leader of the Boko Haram sect alive so he could face war crimes.
So far, as at March 3, the military has flushed out the insurgents  from more than 30 communities in the North East including Kukawa Geri, Gujba,  Kukawa, Geri, Gujba, Bara, the Headquarters of Gulani Local Government Area of Yobe State and Gulag, the Headquarters of Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Other locations also recovered are Shikah, Fikayel, Tetebah, Buza, Kamla and Bumsa Monguno, Marte, Gamboru Ngala, Dikwa, Baga (Gajigana, Ngaze, Ngenzai, Marte Junction, Yoyo, Kekeno, Kukawa, Cross Kauwa, Kangarwa, Amirari.” Also the terrorists have been sacked from Monguno, Gabchari, Abba Jabari, Zuntur, Gajigana, Gajiram, Damakar, Kumaliwa, Bosso Wanti, Jeram and Kabrisungul.
Major General Chris Olukolade, defence spokesman, in February said that “not even the strategy of mining over 1500 spots with land mines on the routes leading to the town could save the terrorists from the aggressive move of advancing troops.  The troops are now dominating and conducting aggressive patrols in the locations. The morale of troops remain high.”
The morale of the troupes were also boosted February 26, when Jonathan paid them an unscheduled visit for a second time.  During the visit, he promised that their efforts will be rewarded. His promise followed the statement made by the defence headquarters that all the military involved the Boko Haram fight will be promoted to the next level and family members of their dead colleagues will be take care of. And the gallant Nigerian soldiers promised the president that never again will any Nigerian territory be seized by the terrorists. Having successfully liberated most of the towns, the troops’ attention has now been focused on consolidation of the security of the areas to pave way for return of citizens to their normal life and for peaceful conducts of forthcoming elections.
Despite the successes the military recorded which has been commended by Nigerian, there is a debate as to whether they should be deployed to monitor the election. The debate was necessitated by the postponement of the general elections slated to hold on February 14 and 28, but now fixed for March 28 and April 11. While the All Progressives Congress is against the deployment of the military, the PDP is all for it.  The APC is insisting that only the police should be used for the elections while PDP is for the deployment of both the military and the police to ensure a peaceful, fair and violence free election.
Although the APC is against the deployment of military, the fact remains that the military have always been deployed to maintain peace and order since 1960 when Nigeria got its independence from Britain, former colonial master. The objection of the APC to the deployment of the military is because of an audio video tape which surface recently which purportedly recorded Musiliyu Obanikoro, former minister of state for defence, while in the company of minister of police affairs and governor Ayo Fayose of Ekiti State promising a military officer that if he makes him happy, an euphemism for rigging election in favour of Fayose, he would ensure that he is promoted. Obanikoro has since denied and dismissed the allegation in the audio tape as untrue and filed a case in court against Sahara reporters.
That notwithstanding, the APC has asked the federal government to thoroughly investigate the taped incident. President Jonathan was recently quoted as saying that the investigation has not been initiated because the soldier who recorded the incident has not owned up. Expectedly, APC has pooh-poohed the president’s position.
However, a federal High court in Sokoto and Court of Appeal in Abuja have ruled against the deployment of the military for general election but the ruling does not preclude the Constitutional powers of the president to deploy the military for operational reason. Many Nigerians have been debating the merits and demerits of the deployment of the military during the elections even though the military which is engaging the Boko Haram terrorists have not said anything about it. But the police, who is statutorily empowered to maintain law and order in civil society, is not objecting to the deployment of the military to help it during the general election.
Emmanuel Ojukwu, deputy commissioner of police and Force Public Relations Officer, told Realnews that “The security situation in the country is very fair. Although there are criminal offences everywhere, people are still going about their normal activities. So it is fair. The war against Boko Haram is on and the military authorities are doing their best and we are hoping that very soon everything will be okay”. He said that the protection of the nation should be everybody’s business. “We all have to be involved in protecting this country. As regards the Constitution, section 218 gives the President the prerogative to deploy the military. The President knows how best to deploy the military. It states the condition when the military should be deployed. Again the pre-election violence in some parts of the country is coming down. The Police have done some arrest and some of them have been prosecuted. The political parties concerned have entered into peace accord. We believe that before the election, the crisis will be over. And we appeal to the consciences of the parties involved that we do not want violence in the country,” Ojukwu said.
Another policeman, who wishes anonymity, told Realnews: “There is no time the Police alone protects the nation. The Police are just the primary agency that provides security for elections. Note the difference. However, other agencies have support roles to play. There is need for military to be deployed during the election. That will be a deterrent to those who may wish to use armed thugs to disrupt elections in areas where they are not popular.” Citing what happened in Okrika as example, he stressed that “Police at polling booths do not carry guns because their duty there is civil, that is crowd control and maintaining orderliness. And the constitution does not stop the military from election. It provides that the military can act in aid of the civil authority. How do you face gun wielding hoodlums?” he asked.
But Frank Odita, security consultant and retired police commissioner, although acknowledging that the military has achieved much, said that his problem is not with winning the war but maintaining the peace. This is because Boko Haram has done a lot of havoc to the psyche of children who got the wrong indoctrination. Even if Shekau is arrested, he has done a lot of damage which will be with us, Odita said.  He is of the view that the police along with other security agencies which should be properly trained should be deployed for the general election while the mobile should also be stationed. Where mobile police fail to do fire power then the military should be called. Odita also suggests that with the court ruling against deployment of the police which is is in order, the government could hire private security firms to assist in the election if the opposition now feels that the military will be used to intimidate it.
Whichever way the argument goes, one thing is clear: Nigeria is in a state of war, according to Article three of the Geneva Conventions Act. The Red Cross which supervises the Act in 2013 declared that Nigeria is fighting a civil war. “We cannot in 2015 deny that the country is not at war, Chidi Odinkalu, chairman of the National Human Rights Commission, NHRC, said.
On his part, Ahmadu Ali, director-general, Peoples Democratic Party Presidential Campaign Organisation, on March 2, in Abuja, confirmed that the anti-same-sex bill passed by Jonathan was responsible for the lack of support his re-election bid is receiving from the western countries. “People talk about security, this has been going on, it’s not the first time. Shehu Shagari had to deal with the Maitatsine riot in Kano. Now, what is happening is an international thing. The ISIS are all over the world. They are in Iran and Lebanon. This is a branch of them. You can see their flag. We are coping very well. It does not matter what our former partners feel because we passed the same-sex bill. We have culture. We have tradition. We have taken our decision and we will abide by it. Believe you me, the whole of Africa are looking up to us,” Ali said.
Supporting Ali’s view, Anya O. Anya, former director general of Nigeria Economic Summit Group, NESG and a member of the presidential advisory committee on the 2014 National Confab, added that foreign powers have been more meddlesome in the Nigeria in the last two years because Nigeria is about to shift so it can build the modern African power. “People outside and those within who don’t like it are collapsing. Hence, the propaganda.” Anya is of the view that Britain is not overtly breathing down Nigeria’s neck because it is more sophisticated but it is very active and dangerous, operating below the surface to undermine the Jonathan administration. “None of them can take a chance on the kind of Nigeria that will emerge if Jonathan is re-elected. America tried to squeeze us by stopping to buy our oil; tried with the LBGTs law, Nigeria call their bluff. Nigeria is the only Africa country in Africa that can change world affairs,” Anya told Realnews in an interview, last week. (See full excerpts of the Interview with Anya in the Cover Box here)
Nevertheless, Nigerians are watching and waiting for the outcome of the general elections to see which of the forces against the country will have an upper hand.
Maureen Chigbo ( Email: ), Publisher/Editor Realnews Magazine reports.
*Photo Caption - Cartoon of foreign powers fighting in Nigeria for their greedy selfish interests. 

[ Masterweb Reports: Ugochukwu Ejinkeonye Reports ] - Last Saturday (February 21, 2015), President Robert Mugabe of  Zimbabwe , the oldest head of state on planet earth, turned 91. He has ruled  Zimbabwe for 35 years – since 1980 when the country gained independence from  Britain.
For many years now, Mugabe’s birthday bash has become a big, lavish event in Zimbabwe – a country where majority of its 14 million people live below the poverty level. This year’s celebrations which will be held a week later on February 28 will, according to reports take place at a “championship golf course at Elephant Hills, a plush hotel resort with spa, pool and tennis courts near the Victoria Falls .”  

The ceremony is estimated to cost about US$1million (one million dollars) and part of the money is being sourced from the citizens. There were even reports that some impoverished villagers are also being compelled to “freely donate” money so that Mugabe could have his big party.  Zimbabwe’s Daily News quotes the head of the Progressive Teachers’  Union, Mr. Raymond Majongwe, as saying that teachers all over the country are being forced to part with between one to ten dollars (depending on the status of the school where one is teaching) to fund the very expensive feast. This has however, been denied by Tongai Kasukuwere, the Finance Secretary of the ruling Zanu-PF’s Youth League who urged anyone “being forced to donate to the gala [to] report to the police.”
The opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) has, however, dismissed Mugabe’s party as an “obscene jamboree.”
“As the MDC, we are greatly perturbed to learn that instead of focusing on more serious and pressing national issues such as rehabilitating the country’s collapsed public health delivery system as well as the renovation of the nation’s dilapidated road and rail infrastructure, Zanu-PF has seen it fit to squeeze the sum of US$I million from the country’s ailing business sector in order to bankroll the nonagenarian’s birthday jamboree in the resort town of Victoria Falls…The majority of the people of Zimbabwe are living in penury, squalor and destitution, and thus, it would be grossly offensive for Robert Mugabe and a few of his hangers – on to wine and dine…on Saturday, February 28,  2015,”  MDC spokesman, Obert Chaurura Gutu, said in a statement in Harare.
If indeed Mugabe is having his birthday party on Saturday as scheduled, would move without some help from his car to his seat and freely acknowledge greetings from the 22, 000 selected guests expected at the ceremony, then it means that he has had a remarkably quick recovery from thefall he experienced recently. On February 4, Mugabe had tripped on a red carpeted staircase and came crashing down to the ground on his hands and knees as he descended a podium at the Harare International Airport after addressing a crowd of supporters that had come to welcome him on his return from Addis Ababa, where he had just been made the new Chair of the African Union (AU).
There were fears that given his age, it would take quite some time before his doctors and physiotherapists would certify him fit for public activity given the predictable effect of such a fall on his knees and ankle bones. But, surprisingly, Mugabe was able to attend the meeting of the Southern African Development Community in  Pretoria last Friday where he expressed joy that he had attained the age of 91.
“I'm very happy to be that age,” he said. “I am happy that God has looked after me." 
Another exciting news for the nonagenarian is the return of his 49-year-old dear wife, closest ally and “power behind the throne,” Grace Mugabe, from Singapore on Sunday February 15 after two months of medical treatment for an undisclosed ailment. While she away, speculations were rife about the state of her health including that she was at some point in coma. Some reports, however, claimed that she had a surgery for appendix. Her return also intensified the rumours and reports that she had been anointed Mugabe’s successor. Whatever is the case, Mrs. Mugabe will share the moment with her husband on Saturday as he blows out the 91 candles that would surely be lighted on his usually very large birthday cake.
But the biggest news for Mugabe this season may, perhaps, be what is now being described in the media as his “victory” over the West, especially, the European Union (EU), which announced two weeks ago that it has resumed direct aid to  Zimbabwe and lifted the travel ban imposed on some key members of the Zimbabwean government. For many years now, Mugabe has accused the EU led by  Britain , and the  United States of trying to achieve what he calls a “regime change” in  Zimbabwe . The aim, he maintained was to replace him with a stooge who would reverse the “land reforms” his government had undertaken which saw large farmlands which had been in the hands of a tiny minority of white settlers (to the great disadvantage of the vast majority of black Zimbabweans) “recovered” and redistributed.
Now that the EU is relaxing its sanctions without confirming any conviction that any improvements have been recorded on Mugabe’s poor human rights records, corruption and anti-democratic actions, which it had always cited as reasons for those sanctions, analysts across the world would be left wondering if the EU is not being driven by enlightened self interest to undertake this self-deprecating somersault?   
In 2012, when the EU first announced its intention to relax the sanctions, a reader on a South African news site posted this comment:
 “The British Government does not act out of charity. It is scrapping sanctions on Mugabe because  Britain needs Mugabe more than Mugabe needs  Britain . It may not be about the oil stupid! But it certainly is about the 40 other exploitable minerals sitting under Uncle Bob's feet. The 4000 or so white farmers that must be disgusted by this are mere ‘collateral damage’ in the war for  Zimbabwe 's resources. Remember why Mugabe is hated, he gives land and minerals to the black poor. Highly inconsistent with the  UK ’s extractive multinational capitalist approach.”
It is obvious that Mugabe will now get away with all his alleged dismal human rights records because the West does not wish to lose out in the big contest for Zimbabwe ’s rich minerals where the East Asian countries have already used the period of the pariah status placed on Zimbabwe by the West to dig in. The MDC’s leader, Morgan Tsvangirai, despite years of massive Western support only managed to become the weaker party in a power-sharing arrangement brokered for  Zimbabwe by  South Africa after the disputed 2008 elections. And with the hope of “democratically” unseating Mugabe and his ZANU-PF diminishing with each passing day, and Tsyangirai appearing increasingly uncomfortable with being widely labeled a Western stooge, the EU appears set now to drop all pretensions and adopt a more pragmatic approach.
Yet, Mugabe and his Zanu-PF stalwarts are not even celebrating the EU gestures, thus aggravating the embarrassing situation the EU has presently found itself.
"To put it very bluntly Mugabe has won," Richard Dowden, director of the London-based Royal African Society was quoted as saying. There has been an “immense amount of Western pressure” on Mugabe, “to step down and reverse some of his policies – and he's done neither," he said. And yet the EU is lifting sanctions on his government and resuming direct aid.
So, it will be a triumphant Mugabe that would roll out the drums and bite into a rich, delicious piece of cake this Saturday as he celebrates his 91st birthday. And without mincing words, he would tell his people: Now, it should be clear to you that I have been right all along and the West was wrong.
While Mugabe savours his double celebration, it is up to the Zimbabweans to decide how long more they would be able to tolerate him, and possible, his wife.
Ugochukwu   Ejinkeonye ( Email: ), commentator on public issues, a columnist (Tuesday) with Daily Independent newspaper,  Lagos reports. 
*Photo Caption - Supported by wife;Grace;and children;Mugabe cuts his 91st Birthday Cake on 28 February 2015  at Elephant Hills;Victoria Falls;Uganda.