*Nigeria At Cross-Roads: Options For Reconstruction ( MNN Bulletin No. 2 )
By Movement For New Nigeria (MNN)
May we recall that in our introductory BULLETIN No.1 titled, AN ALTERNATIVE TO CHAOS, (Vanguard 21/9/13, Guardian 24/9/2013 and Masterweb 19/12/13), MNN undertook to share with all stakeholders through a series of Bulletins, a fresh Diagnosis, Prescription and a Treatment Plan for Nigeria. In that Bulletin No. 1, we traced the Nigerian quagmire to a legion of conspiratorial deformities deliberately inflicted at her inception by Fredrick D. Lugard and his principals in London, culminating in the 1914 Amalgamation which essentially annexed and enslaved Southern Nigeria to Northern Nigeria. We also identified the omnipotent vehicle by which these foundational shackles were transported over the decades to the present Constitutional Order.
That omnipotent vehicle, which also constitutes the most accurate compass for navigating the dark labyrinths of today’s Nigeria, happens to be the October 1960 Mission Statement and Battle Script of the then Premier of Northern Nigeria while celebrating this humongous British bequest to him and his descendants, to wit:
“The new nation called Nigeria should be the estate of our great-grandfather, Uthman Dan Fodio. We must ruthlessly prevent a change of power. We use the minorities of the North as willing tools and the South as a conquered territory and never allow them to rule over us and never allow them to have control over their future”, Sir Ahmadu Bello, Parrot Newspaper October 1960.
MNN posits that the current Apartheid-like Constitutional regime of Nigeria represent the full implementation of this Mission Statement/Battle Script now vigorously rocking the foundations of the failing Nigerian State, resulting in violent demands for a grand renegotiation of the Union and credible threats of unilateral exit by the choking Ethnic nationalities. That Bulletin No. 1 raised four fundamental questions relating to the corporate existence of Nigeria and proprietary rights over constitution making. MNN therefore salutes the rare statesmanship and extraordinary courage of President Goodluck Jonathan for rising above his own initial fears and the pressures of partisan politics, to the occasion on October 1, 2013 to initiate the long-overdue Conference of Ethnic Nationalities even in the face of massive blackmail and violent intimidation by the blind custodians of a dying feudal Constitutional Order embodied in the fraud-based 1999 Constitution.
MNN notes with a measure of relief that the Country has now gone past decades of denial and dumb debates as to the necessity or desirability of a Grand Conference of the entrapped Ethnic Nationalities to renegotiate the Nigerian Union. The Government, the National Assembly, political parties, various ethnic socio-cultural platforms including Afenifere, Ohaneze, Arewa Consultative Forum (ACF), etc all now accept that the fallen house of Nigeria is in need of Reconstruction.
However, MNN notes with concern, that whilst others aforementioned welcomed the prospects of a Dialogue/Conference unconditionally, the ACF in its characteristic obduracy, sets a proviso that the Dialogue/Conference will not be a Sovereign National Conference (Vanguard Oct. 3, 2013), thus reinforcing its earlier arrogant rejection of any conference whatsoever to renegotiate Nigeria whilst holding the current 1999 Constitution sacrosanct and non-negotiable. According to the ACF, “the terms of our National Union and those by which the Nigerian federation are run have been well defined by our Constitution. (Sun Newspaper of 13th Feb, 2012). MNN asks ACF, WHO DEFINED IT? And we say, here: we have not at all defined anything; we do not accept the one unilaterally defined by one Abdulsalami Abubakar via Decree 24 of 1999; it is that definition that this proposed Conference/Dialogue is all about.
Happily, the AFENIFERE presented a more clear-headed approach when in welcoming the proposed Conference, it declared that; “Our Agenda is very clear. We believe through this Conference, we should save Nigeria from crash-landing and give Nigeria a soft-landing. We can forge an agenda for us to live in harmony and our response to the issue (ie. to be Sovereign or Not) is that all Delegates to the Conference must first answer the question: Do we still want to live together as a people? If the answer is yes, then on what terms”. MNN proclaims that this was the question Fredrick Lugard and his principals laboriously evaded in imposing the first Constitution of Nigeria in 1914 by the fiat of Amalgamation. This was the question Abdulsami Abubakar and his confederates in the PRC fraudulently evaded in 1999, when he lied that “we the people” made the 1999 Constitution, knowing that he imposed same via Decree No. 24 of 1999. This is the very question the proposed Dialogue/Conference must answer now. This is the notorious “National Question”, for those who genuinely wondered what it really meant and others like ACF who pretend not to know.
Still on the question of Sovereign or Non-Sovereign, MNN views with concern and raises a red flag on item (6) of the Terms of Reference for the Advisory Committee, namely; “To advise Government on Legal Procedures and Options for integrating decisions and outcomes of the National Dialogue/Conference into the Constitution and Laws of the Nation”. To the extent that this item (6) suggests that the outcome of the Conference is merely for “integration into the Constitution” and the Laws of the Federation, the very essence of the Conference is destroyed or totally compromised for the simple reason that the Peoples of Nigeria have not discussed, enacted or approved any Constitution including the 1999 Constitution and we sincerely hope that was an oversight.
Our concern is aggravated by comments issuing from the National Assembly where the Senate President, whilst welcoming the Dialogue/Conference pronounced as no-go-areas, any discussions on the corporate existence of Nigeria, just as the Minority leader in the Lower House haughtily dismissed the Conference as the exercise of the right to freedom of expression by the people within the ambits of the 1999 Constitution.
These objects of our concern aggregate to a disposition diametrically opposed to efforts at meaningfully addressing the aforesaid “National Question”.
Agreeing with the Afenifere on this count, MNN with a grave sense of responsibility warns that Nigeria is now in a free-fall and will crash-land sooner than later, if the antics of the opponents of SNC derail the golden opportunity offered by the current initiative, 46years after Aburi in 1967.
While MNN has nothing against the impending devolution of the failing Nigeria into independent units on account of adamant posturing of some elements, our concern is more for the catastrophic consequences of a violent break-up than the mere fact of break up.
GRAVE CONSTITUTIONAL GRIEVANCES ARISING FROM THE 1999 CONSTITUTION AND FUELING THE DEMAND FOR A SOVEREIGN NATIONAL CONFERENCE
1. FALSEHOOD AS THE BASIS OF NIGERIA:
The egregious falsehood proclaimed in the Preamble to the 1999 Constitution that, “We the People of Nigeria, having firmly and solemnly resolved to live in unity as one indivisible and indissoluble Nation, do hereby make, enact and give ourselves the following Constitution”, constitute the sole signature giving life to the document and since no such thing as meeting to firmly and solemnly resolve, ever took place, it renders the entire document a forgery. The ethnic Nationalities are outraged that their entire Sovereignty, rights, lands and resources are hijacked and confiscated by virtue of that falsehood and therefore wants it discussed. This is not different from the 1914 imposition.
2. SKEWED INEQUITABLE STRUCTURAL ORGANOGRAM OF NIGERIA.
(FIRST SCHEDULE PART I) 36 States, 774 LGA’s created exclusively by a succession of Northern military officers – Yakubu Gowon, Murtala Mohammed, Ibrahim Babangida, Sani Abacha foists a minority population as a political majority totally distorting the representation at the National Assembly and the revenue sharing realities. The Southern Ethnic nationalities are aggrieved that one out of four federating Regions pre-1966 has ballooned into 19 States and a Federal Capital Territory, whilst the other three Regions together with the Lagos Federal Capital are compressed into 17 States, making them a permanent political minority despite the undisputable superiority of their actual numbers and despite being the source of more than 98% of the revenue of Nigeria, quite apart of their human capital contribution.
3. MEDIOCRITY AS OUR NATIONAL STANDARD:
At a time the rest of the world seeks their best and brightest to lead them in a cutthroat global contest for survival, space and advancement, the Nigerian Constitution institutionalises a preference for mediocrity in the name of quota system and Federal Character. The last Minister of Education upped the ante of the macabre dance when she reeled out ridiculous discriminative cut-off marks for students from different states of the country wherein 3 marks will qualify one pupil while another pupil with 120 marks will not qualify. Achebe in his last book equated mediocrity with war in its ravaging effects and Nigeria is the best evidence of this.
4. CENTRAL CONTROL OF RESOURCES, POWERS AND OTHER DEVELOPMENTAL
The 68-items Federal Exclusive List – ensure that electricity, infrastructure, Police, mineral resources including oil and gas are owned and controlled by Abuja. All the armed agitation (but for sharia) have their roots from this suffocating control.
5. IMPUNITY BRED BY IMMUNITY PROVISIONS.
S. 6(6)(d) & S. 308 of the Constitution. All these are alien and unacceptable to most of the Nationalities.
6. NON-ACCOUNTABLE APPROPRIATION PROVISIONS.
SS. 81/82 & 121 & 122 which practically leave the spare keys of the treasursy in the hands of the Executive branch , emboldening the legislative branch to join the grand larceny in which almost 80% of the income of the country goes just to running our jumbo-sized bureaucracy. This is unacceptable.
7. THE SHARIA DEBACLE:
This is by far the most unacceptable creation of the current Constitution. In creating Sharia Court of Appeal, the Constitution of Nigeria, while proclaiming secularity in Section 10 left a window for what became Sharia in 12 States of the far North, now being enforced by Boko Haram. Since no one can persuade the Sharia bloc to embrace democracy nor can anyone force the non- Sharia South/Middle Belt to embrace Sharia, a meeting of Ethnic nationalities has become inevitable.
There are many more such issues that clearly transcend the mandate of the legislature but even these 7 grounds are sufficient to dictate a meeting like the type Apartheid South Africa initiated in 1990 to ease out the Apartheid Constitution
i. OPTIONS FOR RECONSTRUCTION:
At this juncture of the collapse of unitarism, the only other options open to Nigeria are either to seize this lifeline to rework itself back to a federation/confederation or to peacefully devolve into a number of independent, cohesive successor states.
ii. TRANSITION MECHANISM TO BE MODELLED AFTER APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA:
MNN wishes to point out that, in many respects, the situation confronting Nigeria today for which a Conference/Dialogue is being launched resemble what Apartheid Era South Africa had to deal with in the period leading up to 1990. The steps taken by the Government of Fredrick De Klerk to initiate and deliver a transition to a multi-racial constitutional order readily commends itself to Nigeria’s situation, subject to such modifications and adaptations as may be dictated by the Nigerian peculiarities. Here are the parallels:
1. The Apartheid Constitution of South Africa was imposed by White stranger minority elements in 1910 upon the Natives appropriating all their Lands, Rights and Resources and making them slaves in their homeland. The Nigerian nightmare started in 1914 where White minority stranger element imposed a Nigerian that enslaved a majority.
2. When after decades of resistance on the streets against the Apartheid Constitution, the sitting Government of Fredrick De Klerk, in 1990 acknowledged the rejection of the Apartheid Constitution by the majority in South Africa and therefore proclaimed a transition in which all existing Governmental structures remained in a transitional capacity for the period it took to work out a new constitutional order in 1994 via a Sovereign National Conference called CODESA. The Apartheid Constitution was wholly set aside and the Draft from the Conference was adopted by a Referendum. There was a Parliament in South Africa in all that period but it did not claim to hold the sovereignty of the people.
Nigeria can borrow a leaf from the transition experience of South Africa in the Apartheid Era. The 1999 Constitution and all others preceding it since 1914 were imposed by a minority and now the majority insists on an end to internal colonialism.
1. LOWER NIGER CONGRESS:
Alfred Ilenre, Chijioke Asogwa, Joejim Alaboso, Imoh Okoko, OTKD Amachree, Kalada Jene, Welman Warri, Idongesit Ambrose, Golden Tamuno, Mmuen Kpagani.
2. FEDERATION OF O’DUA PEOPLE:
Kunle Olaiya, Wole Aina, Shade Olukoya, Leye Akinmodiro, Shenge Rhaman.
3. MIDDLE BELT CONGRESS:
Andrew Butswat, Abuka Onalo Omababa, Abass Mafeng Chioji, Abdullahi Banire.
4. OPOROZA HOUSE:
T.K. Ogoriba, Dan Ekpebide, Hilda Dokubo, Ambah Binaebi, Marshal Kunoun, Engozu Kime, Oyeinfie Jonjon, Wilson Ajuwa, Opaks Harry, Bosin Ebikeme.
Coordinator Tony Nnadi
Photo Above: Map and Flag of Nigeria
*Nigeria: An Alternative To Chaos ( MNN Bulletin No. 1 )
By Movement For New Nigeria (MNN)
As politicians continue their bickering and marauding towards the next electoral round in 2015 and as we approach the 100 years expiration of the Amalgamation Treaty of 1914 by 31st December, 2013, MNN in its grave concern for the next generation, once more, steps into the public space with a series of Bulletins in which we shall be presenting a new comprehensive diagnosis of the ailments of Nigeria, a prescription informed by that diagnosis, and a treatment plan.
The Bulletins shall for the first time exhibit freshly excavated revelations from the foundations of Nigeria’s corporate existence (1900 – 1919) together with the poisonous ingredients consciously introduced by Fredrick D Lugard tracing the mutations and trajectories of those debilitating ingredients through to Independence Constitution in 1960 and follow their preservations from the 1966 Military intervention all the way to the 1999 Constitution imposed via Decree 24 of 1999 which we operate to date.
In other words MNN in her research has located the mysterious roots of the Nigerian System manifesting in pervasive corruption, reckless impunity, institutionalised mediocrity, perennial political instability, buoyed by violence, insecurity, inept leadership cycles and a whole lot more and therefore invites all stakeholders including Government and concerned international interests, to objectively evaluate these new findings with a view to joining in deploying same to avoid what now seems like a certainty of approaching chaos that stares Nigeria in the face.
MNN’S HISTORICAL COMPASS FOR INTERPRETING CURRENT CATACLYSMIC POLITICAL TREMORS IN NIGERIA:
(1). Recently Declassified Colonial Record as well as other previously suppressed archival documents ( now being programmed for serial publication by MNN) are proof that the 1914 Amalgamation was basically a scheme by which Southern Nigeria was ceded to the Northern Protectorate as a possession within a larger scheme of the British to maximise British Economic benefits via legitimizing British total control of the entire territory by proxy, having first gerrymandered absolute political control of Nigeria to the Hausa-Fulani of the North, through the manipulation of census figures and the transposition of feudalistic Northern Systems upon the South in what became known as the Nigerian System as far back as 1914.
To dissect the contents of that notorious Nigerian System which wax strong to date, we quote from page 273 of AHM Kirk-Greenes Compilation of Documentary Records of the Amalgamation of Nigeria by Lord Lugard, 1912 – 1919; Viz “The three basic principles necessary for the successful working of the Nigerian System are IGNORANCE, FEAR AND MILITARY TERRORISM; that is to say, the perpetuation of the Natives in a state of idolized ignorance, the impregnation of their minds with an instinctive fear of the White man and reverential awe for the fetish of white prestige and the paralysation of their wills by the spectacle of Military terrorism hanging over their heads like a sword of Damocles” . These are the foundations of terror and mediocrity ravaging Nigeria today and also proof that Nigeria was a fraud from inception.
(2). In celebration of the British grand bequest of Southern Nigeria to Northern Nigeria, the revered Premier of the then Northern Nigeria declared to his lieutenants at Independence in 1960 that; “The new Nation called Nigeria should be an estate of our Great Grand Father Uthman Dan Fodio. We must ruthlessly prevent a change of Power, we use the minorities of the North as willing tools and the South as a conquered territory and never allow them to rule over us and never allow them to have control over their future”, Parrot Newspaper, October, 1960.
This Mission Statement and in fact Battle Script solidly anchored on the fraud of 1914 is the crucible from which Nigeria’s current constitutional order was forged; everybody in his role as assigned – the inheritors from the Sharia North, the willing tools from the Middle Belt and THE SLAVES of the South. It is thus infuriating to the Hausa-Fulani North that a slave from the South is not only occupying their Great-Grand Father’s throne in Abuja, but has the temerity to suggest continuing beyond 2015. They must ruthlessly prevent or at least cut short this forbidden change of power. If the name of the game is democracy, little wonder their enforcer Boko Haram violently rejects democracy on behalf of Sharia North. The same Sardauna had in a 1964 interview with a foreign correspondent proclaimed what he called a Northernization Policy in which the Government of the Northern Region of Nigeria under his Premiership pursued a policy of weeding out the Igbo and other Southerners from the Public Service of the Northern Region, and preferred foreign (contracted) hands to Southerners, who if to be engaged at all, were also as contract staff just like foreigners. (View YouTube Video titled “THE STORY OF NIGERIA”).
(3). It would be recalled that prior to the 2011 elections, a prominent mouthpiece of the Hausa Fulani North and a former Governor of old Kaduna State, Alhaji Lawan Kaita while rejecting the abominable spectre of a Jonathan Presidency declared that; ” Anything short of a Northern President is tantamount to stealing our Presidency. Jonathan has to go and he will go. Even if he uses incumbency power to get his nomination on the platform of the PDP, he would be frustrated out (If Jonathan emerges President next year). If that happens, the North is determined, to make the country ungovernable for President Jonathan or any other Southerner who finds his way to the seat of power on the platform of the PDP”. To date Nigeria has remained ungovernable, thanks to Boko Haram, the militia wing of the Hausa-Fulani.
(4). Another veteran gladiator of the Hausa Fulani North, General Muhammadu Buhari in anticipation of the 2015 electoral round is already baying for blood when he declared that; “If what happened in 2011 elections repeats itself, (i.e. if his North is not coronated President from the election) both the baboon and the dog will soak in blood”. This haughty sense of entitlement is the hallmark of the geographical expectation index of selected North.
(5). Still in the bloody mood towards 2015, one jagged, willing tool from the Middle Belt, named Abu King Shuluwa, playing the attack-dog role assigned to his ilk in the 1960 Battle Script, boasted that the North will take the battle of keeping Nigeria one, by all means to the creeks to contain any secessionist threats by armed agitators from the Niger-Delta, when the North dislodges President Jonathan. (pg56, the Sun Newspapers of 9/9/13)
(6). In a sad rehash of the age-long conspiratorial alliances, certain elements in the Political topography have yanked off their flank to enlarge the coast of an earlier core of alliances and it takes only the blind not to see who the drivers and pilots of the entire macabredance are. A US verdict on the geography of this “alliance” declared it North/South schisms, tending towards fulfilling their earlier prophesy that Nigeria will breakup before 2015.
(7). It is instructive that as recently as June 13, 2013; the United States Army War College in a report titled, “NIGERIA’S UNITY IN THE BALANCE”, practically proclaimed the inevitable devolution (implosion, dissolution or breakup if you like) of Nigeria along its well known fault-lines for the same issues as those that led to the Nigeria-Biafra war (1967 – 1970) which remain unaddressed. The desperate political war-mongering by the Sharia North as outlined herein is directly responsible for the dark clouds that are gathering over Nigeria.
(8). MNN joins the Convener of the Yoruba National Assembly Lt Gen. Alani Akinrinade (rtd) in asserting that; “We cannot pretend to be running a democracy with a Master Servant Constitutional arrangement imposed wholly by one side upon all by fiat, just like the Apartheid Era Constitution of South Africa”. Tell Magazine Sept. 24, 2012.
(9). In a determined bid, and in fact dumb desperation to keep the full benefits of the Lugard-Sardauna Northern Military booty called Nigeria, the Arewa Consultative Forum in responding to the deafening call by all other sections of Nigeria for a Sovereign National Conference to renegotiate the Nigerian Union took full page advertorials in National newspapers declaring thus;
“The ACF reviewed the recurring calls for a national conference, and even a Sovereign National Conference, for the purpose, the proponents say, of re-defining the terms of our union. The Forum concluded that the terms of our National Union and those by which the Nigerian Federation are run have been well defined in our Constitution. However, for the avoidance of doubt, it should be made clear that the North remains open to, and will be keen to discuss any ideas that may place Nigeria in a better position to meet the challenges of nation building and secure a better future for this and succeeding generations of Nigerians”.
IN THE LIGHT OF THE FOREGOING, MNN wishes to raise the following questions; a. If the errors and distortions of Nigeria’s corporate existence dates back to its foundation in 1914, would it be out of place to seize the opportunity of the expiration of the Amalgamation Treaty by December 31, 2013 to conduct a grand renegotiation of the union by the entrapped Ethnic Nationalities instead of the jamboree of centenary celebrations?
b. Do we still have a Nigeria in place over which elections can be conducted in 2015?
c. Going by Section 14(2)(a) of the 1999 Constitution, between the Peoples of Nigeria and the National Assembly, who has the right, in fact the exclusive right to make or remake the Constitution?
d. Does the preambuler text “We the People”, proclaimed in the Preamble to the 1999 Constitution, now mean, “We the National Assembly” as being suggested by the legislative arm?
WE THE PEOPLE HAVE THE RIGHT TO QUERY
1. LOWER NIGER CONGRESS:
Alfred Ilenre, Tony Nyiam, Chijioke Asogwa, Joejim Alaboso, Imoh Okoko, OTKD Amachree, Kalada Jene, Welman Warri, Idongesit Ambrose, Golden Tamuno, Mmuen Kpagani.
2. FEDERATION OF O’DUA PEOPLE:
Tokunbo Ajasin, Kunle Olaiya, Wole Aina, Shade Olukoya, Leye Akinmodiro.
3. MIDDLE BELT CONGRESS:
Leonard Shilgba, Andrew Butswat, Abuka Onalo Omababa, Abass Mafeng Chioji, Abdullahi Banire.
4. OPOROZA HOUSE:
T.K. Ogoriba, Dan Ekpebide, Hilda Dokubo, Ambah Binaebi, Marshal Kunoun, Engozu Kime, Oyeinfie Jonjon, Wilson Ajuwa, Opaks Harry, Bosin Ebikeme.
Coordinator Tony Nnadi
Photo Above: Map and Flag of Nigeria
*World Rights Day Message Of Intersociety - Understanding Credible Polls As A Pillar Of....
A Speech Delivered By Emeka Umeagbalasi At The 2013 Anniversary Of The UDHR (World Rights Day) Organized By Anambra State Branch Of The Civil Liberties Organization(CLO) Held In Onitsha On 08/12/2013
Topic: Understanding Credible Elections As A Pillar Of Popular Government & Development: A Case Of Anambra State Of Nigeria
(Onitsha Nigeria, Tuesday, 10th of December, 2013)- On behalf of the leadership of International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law, I pay a sincere tribute to the founding persons of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, enacted on 10th day of December, 1948 (65 years ago). The chairperson of the UN 18-member committee of seminal thinkers that worked tirelessly and produced the all-important global document; late Mrs. Elizabeth Eleanor Roosevelt, is particularly remembered today by Intersociety. Also, particularly important and worthy of mention is one of the great thinkers of the 20th century, Mr. Woodrow Wilson, who was popularly credited as the first international leader to mention the concept of “human rights” in his famous “14-point program” for the formation of the League of Nations in 1914. Mr. Woodrow Wilson was then the visionary President of the United States of America.
Though, “human rights” as part of “religious rights” has been in existence as far back as 304 AD, it became part of Europe and Americas’ post conflict transformation mechanisms starting from the Roman Empire’s 30 years civil war of 1618, which ended in 1648 to the 2nd world war of 1939 to 1945. The concept of “human rights” was crudely mentioned in the all forerunners of the United Nations, starting from “ the Holy Alliance” (1648-1818), “the Concert of Europe” (1818-1919), to “the League of Nations” (1919-1945/6). But the concept became seminally pronounced in Woodley Wilson’s 1914 famous 14-point program for the formation of the League of Nations, finally formed in 1919. The journey to the present day UDHR being marked in 225 independent countries and occupied territories around the world actually began in 1941 courtesy of the “Atlantic Charter of 1941”,issued in August 1941.
The then leaders of the Great Britain and the United States, Sir Wilson Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt came together and agreed on “human rights and democratic freedoms” (self determination as a right of the people and freedom from want and fear). This landmark feat made it possible for successful convocation of other world leaders’ conferences leading to the historic formation of the UNO on 24th of October, 1945. The UN Charter was originally signed on 26th June, 1945 by 50 countries leading to successful lobbying by 40 NGOs in the San Francisco Conference of same year and time for the internationalization of human rights including basic freedoms and freedom from want and fear.
After the successful formation of the United Nations in 1945, a body known as “UN Commission on Human Rights” was set up in 1946 under the leadership of Mrs. Elizabeth Eleanor Roosevelt with other 17 members. Mrs. Roosevelt was a well known rights activist and widow of late US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who died in 1945. The Committee’s fundamental task was the “definition of human rights and freedoms” within the contemplation of the UN Charter. Other major contributors to successful production of this famous document then, who are worthy of mention today are Rene Cassin (France), Charles Malik (Lebanon), Peng Chun Chang (China), Herman Santa Cruz (Chile), Alexandre Bogomolov Alexei Pavlov (USSR/Russia), Lord Dukeston Geoffrey Wilson (United Kingdom), William Hodgson (Australia) and John Humphrey (Canada). On 10th of December, 1948 in Palais de Challot, Paris, France, the famous global document was enacted and signed by over 30 countries present through their representatives.
The link between human rights and popular polls is strong and a truism. What credible democracy is to Nigeria is what “truth and reconciliation” mechanism, which originated from the Southern America, is to the Union of South Africa. Popular polls and human rights are like biological encirclement, which goes round without ceasing. Human rights friendly environment engenders participatory/popular polls, which in turn, produce popular government and when a government is popularly instituted and legitimized, human and material development becomes abundant. A government propelled by popular votes and development has a combination of input and output legitimacy to its credit. No matter the quantum of physical development embarked upon by a government, once it lacks popular electoral foundation, it ends up wearing the toga of mechanical legitimacy. This is always the fundamental difference between Obi’s legitimate government and Ngige’s illegitimate regime in our beloved State. When a government is popular and development oriented, the masses rejoice and human rights environment fares better. Illegitimate civilian government founded on electoral banditry is worst than a military government.
Human rights and credible democracy are inseparable. This explains why the granting of independence and organization of transitional polls were the first fallout of the formation of the UN and the enactment of the UDHR in 1945 and 1948 respectively. Following from this was the granting of independence to India and Pakistan in 1947, Israel 1948, Sudan 1956, Ghana 1957, Guinea 1958, Nigeria 1960, to mention but a few. Where the colonial masters refused to grant same, the colonized armed themselves with “right to self-determination” and fought for their self-governance until it is achieved. Instances of this abound, Angola to Mozambique; Zimbabwe to Zambia; and South Africa to Namibia. As the saying goes, “democracy may be the worst form of government and governance, but the best form of same has not been found and in absence of this, democracy remains the best”.
The fundamental question is: what are credible polls? Fundamentally, credible polls are determined by “living votes” as against “dead votes”. When people of voting age (18 years and above) who have registered to vote, file out diligently and submit themselves for accreditation on poll day arising from the voters’ register, after which they queue up and thumbprint with their fingerprints on valid ballot papers and their votes counted and entered into result sheets, collated and announced with a winner and a loser emerging; the aggregate votes of theirs become “living votes” and the outcomes are called “credible polls”. Any voting process that falls short of these expressly yields “dead votes”. In determining the sacredness/sanctity of “living votes”, one thousand “living votes” are worth more than one million “dead votes”. In law, any poll premised on “living votes” is beyond judicial revocation. “Living votes” are also unknown to the axe of the judge’s ratio decidendi and long arm of the “technical justice” in matters of poll litigation.
The governorship poll in our beloved State of Anambra, held on 16th of November, 2013 and completed on 30th of the same month, may have come and gone, but lessons arising from it will remain indelible. It was one election too many. For us in the rights community, it was a test case. It was a battle of wits between “sedentary rights activists of Igbo-Southeast” and “pastoral rights activists of Igbo extraction”, milked and quartered in the Yoruba-Southwest of Lagos Nigeria, who joined forces with one of the worst opposition political alliances in Africa, in the name of “revolutionary progressives”. Their so called “poll monitoring roles” were purely a failed coup and vendetta mission. The “pastoralists” applied all guerrilla tactics known to them and their “progressive comradely” political alliance to upturn the sacred political destiny of the Anambra People including importing and masquerading thousands of fake ballot papers’ thumb printers and when all their criminal plots got foiled by security agencies, they relocated to the pages of sectionalized and sensationalized Nigerian Newspapers with intent to blacken the poll’s credibility.
As “sedentary rights activists”, it is our duty not to allow any attempts to deny our people right to choose their leaders democratically. We must insist on doing the right thing and ignore “Nigeria’s disgusting labeling culture” of giving a dog a bad name so as to hang it. It is better to be labeled “a trader” than to be labeled “an armed robber”. Some of these “comrades of military juntanism” condemned us for choosing decent trade occupation instead of armed robbery and stealing, yet we put food on their tables from time to time through comradely begging and assistance.
Some of them asked us for “loans”, given and not given, yet they turned around and labeled us “mercenaries”, “merchants”, “clowns”, “charlatans”, etc. If one out of every ten “occupational rights activists” fits into the labeling above, then nine out of every jobless rights activists are worst than the former. Our detractor comrades became unsettled when they noticed that we have transformed ourselves academically and vowed not to stop until we become doctors of philosophy in ivory towers. Or is it that university education closed when they graduated? You must always remember the theory of “Ojukwu versus Gowon”. The theory simply tells us that there is no lateness in education. Today, it is a case of “Assoc. Professor” and “parental master’s degree holder”.
Fellow Comrades, your contributions towards the all-sector transformation of our beloved State in the past seven years will forever remain in gold. Between 2003 and 2006, you fought gallantly for the restoration of the culture of one person one vote in our dear State and chased away electoral criminals from the State’s corridors of power. In June 2006, having achieved this great feat, you began the journey for the transformation of the State through constructive and transformative partnership with the government you popularly instituted. For “pastoral Igbo rights activists”, you are “shopping” from the Government of Anambra State, but for you who wear the shoes and know where they pinch, you see food but choose to fast for the collective good of our beloved people. Always remember that criminal government invests heavily on individuals willing to do its criminal biddings for the purpose of acquiring mechanical legitimacy, but legitimate government invests hugely on people from whom its natural legitimacy is derived.
The same political criminal gangsters, chased away years ago from our beloved State cycled again with utter ferocity and accompanied this time around by a number of “pastoral Igbo rights activists” so as to take over our beloved State in a crudest manner, but you fought gallantly and dwarfed them, by exposing all their reprehensible plots to crown their candidate next governor of Anambra through “Oshogbo manufactured votes”. Until they came to our beloved State on a failed civilian coup mission, they had taken our beloved State to be as socially disastrous as “Oshodi” and “Ajagunle”. But, their eyes could not believe what they saw on the ground all over the State. It was a case of supporting a man with “Okada popularity” against another, whose is predicated on “mass movement/consciousness”. It is always better to run “government on the ground” than to run a showbiz or an “owambe” or a media government.
Lastly fellow Comrades, remain resolute and unyielding. Do not see your choice of occupation as a wrong choice. As human beings, we have three fundamental tasks on earth: to work, to eat and to render service to humanity. Occupationally, you must work and eat. Your joining human rights crusade is not to “eat”, but to render service to humanity. This is why you should help me spread the message to other comrades including some of them in Lagos part of the country, “working and eating” with human rights, which make them willing tools in the hands of Africa’s most violent and militant opposition political alliance, to look for decent jobs or occupations even if it means being a graduate-hawker. Human rights works do not belong to “business enterprises”, but “not-for-profit establishments”.
Starting from my days as your chairman, I have never stopped educating those of you with limited education to dust yourselves up and head back to school. This is because as it is difficult asking a brilliant JSS 3 student to go and teach “economics” in the university, so it is, faring well in the field of rights activism with limited education. Rights activism comrades with limited education are always known to us as “police station and libertarian comrades”, while academically grounded rights activism comrades end up as “egalitarian, formidable and reformative rights comrades”.
I am happy to announce to you that today my message has turned in about ten graduates/graduating students including your chairman, who joined rights activism years ago with WASC. He is now a master’s degree student and reporter with the Sun Newspapers. He told me clearly that it is not academically over yet until he earns an academic “doctor of philosophy”. The challenge before us now is to take over the human rights community in the Southeast and put our detractors out of relevance. We must also insist on engaging the electoral process, because if we allow political criminals to take over the polity, anarchy and backwardness will become the societal norm to be dislodged no more. We must use personal intellect, ICT resources, volunteerism and in-kind resources to cushion the effects of declining “dollarization of rights activism” in our beloved country. This is to ensure that the absence of dollars does not affect the speed of our rights advocacy works. It will also engender neutrality and institutionalize human rights with local contents that are outside the dictates of white man and his dollars.
This Speech Is Pricelessly Dedicated To Late Dr. Nelson Madiba Mandela (1918-2013). I Wish His Soul Permanent Peace.
Emeka Umeagbalasi, Board Chairman
International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law, Onitsha Nigeria
*Tags: Nigerians, Intersociety, Council, Police, Service, Commission. Sack, Ringim, Africa, Masterweb
*Summary of Performances of Candidates in Anambra Gubernatorial Election of Nov. 16, 2013
By Masterweb News Desk
All Progressives Grand Alliance (APGA) candidate, Chief William Obiano emerged the front-runner (‘winner’) with 174,710 votes. Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) candidate Comrade Tony Nwoye polled 94,956, trailed by Dr. Chris Ngige of APC with 92,300 votes and Ifeanyi Uba with 37,446 votes to place fourth. INEC declared the election inconclusive because the total number of cancelled votes (113,113) was more than the difference (79,754) between the number of votes cast for the ‘winner’ (APGA) and the runner up (PDP) in the election. INEC is currently meeting to schedule supplementary election were votes were canceled. All parties that participated in the election would participate in the supplementary election; this means that votes cast for them in the exercise would be counted even if they boycott the election. Below is the summary table.
*26-Year-Old Nigerian Woman Murdered In U.S. By Roommate
By Masterweb News Desk
The body of 26-year-old Nigerian woman identified as Adaobi Michaella Obih was found on Tuesday in her apartment at Westside Columbus Apartment Complex in Columbus, Indiana, USA. A spokesman for the Columbus Police Department said the death is being investigated as a homicide and Obih’s roommate, 36-year-old Ryan Allen Klug, is a person of interest in the case. Klug went missing after Obih’s body was found. He was yesterday charged with felony murder and a warrant for his arrest issued.
Obih suffered multiple knife wounds with her throat slashed, according to a probable-cause affidavit. Blood-stained clothes of Klug’s size were found in their two-bedroom apartment. According to the affidavit, her boyfriend, Jude Osara, last communicated with her Sunday afternoon, and later was unable to get her on the phone nor receive text-message replies from her. ( Continues below….. )
Photo Above: Late Adaobi Michaella Obih –Left; Ryan Allen Klug -Right
Obih was the first of two children and a doctorate degree student in Electrical Engineering. Klug may be driving a silver or grey 2008 Subaru Legacy with Indiana registration plate 357BPC. Columbus Police Department can be reached at 812-376-2600 with any information on the murder or the whereabouts of Klug.
*Anambra Governorship Poll: Intersociety Insists On Free & Popular Poll
Anambra Governorship Poll: Intersociety Ends Pre-Election Advocacy & Insists On Free & Popular Poll
(Public Information, Onitsha Nigeria, 15th of November, 2013)-It is our observation at Intersociety that the all-important Anambra Governorship Poll is here for real. We also observe that except the “perfect crime” that led to “perfect killing” of about 28 citizens at the Uke Catholic Church Adoration Vigil, propelled by politically oiled intervening forces; Anambra’s pre poll season is the best in Nigeria.
The State’s great transformation from its notoriety in the modern world map of poll rigging and rascality governance to Nigeria’s center of excellence in matters of free, non-violent and popular poll and its transformative socio-economic governance; makes it a qualified candidate for the Nobel Peace Prize Award. Popular poll institutes popular and powerful government, which leads to mass and massive development. In other words, another name for popular poll propelled government is “development”.
However, this priceless feat is under serious threat in the State. This is because the puppets, puppeteers and their grand masters of the Anambra’s disastrous past, have staged a fierce come back. This time around, they have found strong allies in the western part of the country, which dry quest for expansionist conquest is never hidden. While the sole interest of the grand masters under reference is “turning Anambra State into business enterprise”, those of their former puppets are negative political power, immorality in public shrine (government house) and “treaty of cession” with the west. In other words, it is “give us Anambra and Igbo land and we will give you the governorship seat” deal.
Those who “bought” Anambra governorship seat from Chief Olusegun Obasanjo in April 2003 and handed it over to Mr. Chris Ngige under stiff conditions are back. More “ Anambra governorship oil block” bidders have also joined. The other day, it was one of them that chased around three security chiefs designated for this crucial poll with a whopping sum of N300M (N100M each) so as to compromise the poll day security in favor of his party. Other field instructions such as “deliver your ward and get an instant sum of N7M.” have been given by some of the said Anambra governorship oil block bidders.
Generally in this poll’s electioneering, we have seen clear acts of desperation on the part of political parties and their candidates. All manner of unconventional methods grounded in political guerrilla tactics were deployed. Among the top contestants are academic touts and morallyl rotten eggs. Some dropped at JSS3 and padded up the constitutional educational basic requirement of “West African School Certificate or its equivalents”. Others crashed academically from top to bottom by reaching final year before crashing to O’ Level. Modern public governance, especially gubernatorial governance is like asking somebody with a junior secondary certificate with primary “social studies” background to come and teach “economics” in the university. Those with these “not less than” academic certificates are “graduates” of “JSS Social Studies” wanting to teach “economics in the university”.
Among the top contenders are “morally rotten eggs”. Some are padded and canonized by the Southwest media. In governance of Anambra State, the stock in trade of “a rotten egg” governor is governance rested in borrowings and statutory receipts only. His or her morally rotten eggness will be a boarding pass off international development funding institutions and “beyond the border resources mobilization” will be grounded to zero. Other core attributes of his or her governance are showbiz or “owambe” governance as well as propaganda and populist governance (government by media and sightseeing).
Though democracy demands that even if people choose a goat to govern them, so be it; but it also allows room for the voters to be properly guided so as to make a right choice. Our proactive engagement in the electoral process under reference, especially the pre-election aspect, is well grounded and pronounced. In the course of this, most of the sharp practices of some front line political parties and their candidates were extensively exposed and brought to public notice. The quality of some front-line candidates picked by some political parties is shockingly disappointing. They are nothing but termites. This political candidates’ choice blunder has, again, opened a room for the agitation for a constitutional or legal provision for independent candidacy on the polity.
Following from the recent field assessment of methods of campaigns deployed by the leading political parties and their candidates, which was done by the Southeast Group 8 Rights Coalition, coordinated by Intersociety; we have strong information that the importation of strange persons into the State especially during the continuous registration exercise was linked to the Labour Party. The party was also accused of buying voters’ cards in Ayamelum.
On Wednesday and Thursday evening of 13th and 14th of November, 2013, some members of the Labour Party were sighted at 29, Orakwu Street and Oraifite Town Hall, on Miss Elems Street, all in Fegge, Onitsha, engaging in “voters’ cards buy back” wonder lotto or raffle draw; whereby you submit your voters’ cards irretrievably and thumb-print on a blank space provided in the camouflage lotto raffle tickets. Some of the victims are instantly given attractive gifts like motorcycles, standing fans, refrigerators, electric irons and kettles so as to draw more victims or public rush, while others are promised to be given later.
The massive operation “share money”, including a reported instruction to each of the 326 wards to “deliver your ward and get N7M” is linked to the PDP. On the part of APGA, which controls the State, it is accused of banning other political parties from campaigning in the markets in the State, citing security reasons. It was also reported by a journalist that the party’s agents were sighted in a location in Awka on Thursday, 14th of November, 2013, sharing money among its agents, who will man the polling centers in the State, numbering 4,608. The reporter said they recorded their conversation.
The APC is seriously linked to the inducement of registered voters in their houses with money and other lofty monetary promises, during which they are asked to surrender their cards for extraction of their polling units’ pin numbers and other useful code numbers. Some have their cards withheld, while few who protested and backed down have theirs returned.
Further, at No.9, Ihitenansa Street, Iyiowa Odekpe in Ogbaru LGA of Anambra State, a woman, who sells provisions in a kiosk, told Intersociety that the APC people came and collected her voters’ card and gave her N2, 000 and as at 14th of November, 2013, it has not been returned. During an ABS Television live program held in the morning of 14th of November, 2013, callers from Federal Housing, Onitsha and Nnewi areas confirmed that the criminal exercise is a State wide operation that started days after the Anambra INEC handed over the soft copies of the last updated voters’ list to the 23 contesting political parties. The list, which was given to them on 16th of October, 2013, contained 1, 784, 475 registered voters.
The collection of photos of non-registered voters and other personal data including name, age, gender, State and LGA of origin, street address and phone numbers, is also traced to the APC’s doorstep. Mr. and Mrs. Sunday Umejesi, who reside at Iyiowa Odekpe, are one of those approached by the APC in that respect. They were interviewed by Intersociety and they not only confirmed it, but also revealed that a number of their neighbors are “already involved”.
The Independent National Electoral Commission is called upon to be extremely vigilant and be mindful of the foregoing. This has further heightened our earlier fears that the INEC adhoc staff hierarchy may include hundreds of card-carrying members of some contesting political parties. The recent arrest of hundreds of un-named persons quartered in a hotel in Imo State, who are said to have been caught bearing Anambra voters’ cards, is another example. While detailed investigation by security agencies into the incident is required to ascertain the truth, security searchlights should be beamed the more throughout the State and its boundaries to unmask other criminal plots to deny this important poll its deserved credibility and popularity.
In all, the leadership of Intersociety has since July 2013, when the time-table for the all-important poll was released to the public, featured in fifteen television and radio appearances in the State in respect of pre-election public advocacy activities. These include six appearances on the Anambra Broadcasting Service Television’s “Face the Press”, two appearances on the same ABS TV’s “People & Politics” and two appearances on the television’s Onitsha section’s live program called “Issues of the Moment”.
Others are three phone-in radio programs, three appearances on the Onitsha NTA programs and other interviews with the Silver Bird and Channel’s televisions. Over fifteen public statements and letters were issued or written during this period, in addition to four major public forums on “voter education”. Interestingly, all these were carried done free of charge. In other words, all the television and radio programs and interviews as well as newspapers and online publications during the public advocacy under reference, were free of charge. The public forums were also free of charge.
We are very grateful to the managements of the aforementioned media industry for their priceless assistance to us. We appeal to Anambra voters to vote wisely and conscientiously. They have the option to vote in hugely indebted and bankruptcy governance. They also have the option of vote in “showbiz or “owambe” governance” as well as riotous or rascal governance. Option also is theirs to vote out the 2nd Niger Bridge, formidable reconstruction and completion of the Onitsha-Enugu Dual Carriage Way, the Akanu Ibiam International Airport and the collective Igbo identity.
On the other hand, it is also the wisdom and right of Anambra voters to vote in all the positives mentioned above including the 2nd Niger Bridge and the Igbo identity. They can as well vote out the negatives so mentioned including “owambe” governance, Igbo political slavery, huge public indebtedness and rascality governance.
Emeka Umeagbalasi, Chairman of the Board
International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law
Comrade Justus Ijeoma, Head, Publicity Desk
Photo Above: Map of Anambra State
*Tags: Nigerians, Intersociety, Council, Police, Service, Commission. Sack, Ringim, Africa, Masterweb
*Another stride achieved as Sokoto opens its own university
By Amiru Adamu
As Sokoto State opened its own university October 29, 2014,let's take a look at the policies that were implemented by Wamakko's administration to warrant the creation of the state university.
There is no doubt,that sokoto state was before now regarded as one of the educationally backwards states in Nigeria. However this assertion can no longer be made,considering the efforts that have been made by past and present administrations in the state to reverse the hitherto status of sokoto state as one of the educationally backwards states of the country.
Like most administrations,the present government of sokoto state being led by governor Aliyu Magatakarda Wamakko,came into office with a promise of kick-starting an educational reform. It promised to take sokoto state to greater heights in terms of education. Hence my decision to write this brief review of its strides in the sector for others to read, verify and come to their own conclusions. ( Continues below….. )
Photo Above: Map of Sokoto State
At its inception in 2007 Wamakko's administration declared a state emergency in the educational sector and committed 22 percent of the state's budget to the sector. Structures such as classrooms,libraries,workshops,hostels etc are important considering the fact that effective teaching and learning process can only take place in a conducive learning environment. It is with this fact in mind,that the sokoto state government expended over 3 billion naira into the construction,rehabilitation and expansion of most primary and secondary schools in the state.
Poverty is the excuse often given by parents as the reason why they keep their children most especially the girl child out of school. The administration took measures to arrest this situation by abolishing fees from the school system in sokoto including examination fees,for all students non indigenes inclusive. It also increased the feeding allowance of its students by 100 percent. This 2 policies have since yielded results,as survey has shown an increase in students enrollment to about 50 percent so far.
The fact that many women have married without completing their secondary education,prompted the creation of women education centers within the state and one in each of the 3 senatorial districts in the state,for women to enroll for their secondary education that will qualify them for tertiary education. This policy has given married women a renewed opportunity to acquire western education.
Qualified and competent teaching force,is essential to any educational reform. The administration has so far recruited over 1000 additional primary school teachers,1000 secondary school teachers,300 teachers for arabic and islamic board and over 200 lectures and support staffs for its college of education and polytechnic.
There is a tremendous increase in the provision of teaching and learning materials. Textbooks,science equipment s and other related learning materials are being provided to all schools in the state. It is in-line with its drive to foster effective learning that the administration recently approved a 46 million naira one laptop per child pilot programme, that will introduce its students to the new global ICT trend.
The vexed issue of almajiri also received a commendable attention from the government. It committed over 70 million naira in the establishment of a specially equipped boarding school that incorporates western and islamic education in the curriculum. The school now has an enrollment of over 600 children. The government provides feeding,clothing and other needs of the these children. The federal government has also partnered the state in this regard;it recently built and equipped another almajiri modern school in the state.
The sokoto state government,has secured admissions for its indegenes in various higher institutions within and outside the country.NECO,WAEC,JAMB and DE forms are also being purchased on a yearly basis for distribution to its students free of charge. Over 1000 students with deficiencies in o/level were registered for extra mural lessons. The programme is being supervised by a consultant with coordinators that engaged qualified teachers for the programme.
The administration also secured accreditation by NUC,for 17 B. ed programmes for its college of education and secured HND courses accreditation for its polytechnic. The state has further established a state university that shall accommodate the envisaged turnover of secondary school leavers.
Scholarships and study grants are necessary incentives in order to provide equal opportunities for all. The administration has done a lot in this regard. Apart from the payment of school fees and allowances to all sokoto state students studying at home and abroad,it has sponsored a substantial number of its students to study specialist courses abroad.
These projects and policies are all on ground in sokoto state today for individuals or groups to come and verify. Perhaps the keen interest being shown by the sokoto state government, in the development of education is due to the fact that the founding fathers of sokoto helped in the spread of islam in Africa. And islam as a religion made it mandatory for every Muslim to seek for knowledge.
It is our hope and prayer,that Sokoto state University lives and performs above expectations.
Amiru Adamu is the publisher of Northern wind magazine.
*Tags: Nigerians, Intersociety, Council, Police, Service, Commission. Sack, Ringim, Africa, Masterweb
*Anambra Governorship Poll: Intersociety Frowns At Nwuruku’s Inclusion, Points Out......
Anambra Governorship Poll: Intersociety Frowns At Nwuruku’s Inclusion, Points Out Other Challenges Facing INEC & Security Agencies
(Public Information, Onitsha Nigeria, 12th of November, 2013)-The International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law wishes to remind the Independent National Electoral Commission on the urgent need to re-scrutinize all its newly recruited ad hoc staff or workers that will work for the Commission in the all-important Anambra Governorship Election, fixed for this Saturday, November 16, 2013. This is to ensure that card-carrying party members are not recruited as collection officers, returning officers, presiding officers, etc and to avoid a repeat of the 2011 Anambra Central Senatorial poll incident, during which an adhoc INEC returning officer, one Mr. Alex Anene went and announced the poll result in an Awka hotel.
the inclusion of Mr. Lawrence Nwuruku, the former chairman of the Ebonyi State PDP, as one of the Commission’s special Commissioners for the crucial poll is totally frowned at and protested against by our organization. Our firm opposition to Mr. Nwuruku’s inclusion stems from the fact that he is a career politician and a well known card carrying member of the PDP of the immediate past. Many people in Anambra State are uncomfortable with his inclusion as one of the Commission’s special commissioners for the Anambra governorship poll. Every indication clearly points to his inclusion as patently and manifestly bias. It is our call that his name should be removed and another fairly neutral name included.
Ascertaining the true particulars of the adhoc staff recruited by INEC for the poll is extremely important. Recruiting card carrying members of political parties, smuggled into the Commission by their parties with indoctrinated scripts, are very dangerous and have the capacity of rubbishing the credibility of the poll as well as ruining the image of the Commission. The “coupist” announcement in a hotel, of the senatorial poll results for the Anambra Central Senatorial District and the sectional roles played by the electronic and print media therein, is one of such disasters that must be avoided in this respect. Proper policing and monitoring of INEC’s adhoc staff in all the 4,608 polling centers in the State including ensuring that they do not compromise by allowing rooms for holders of faked voters’ cards and non-voters’ card bearers to vote, for a fee, is extremely necessary.
We have credible reports that registered voters are being hunted and haunted in their houses with inducement packages all over the State including Ogbaru, Onitsha South, Onitsha North, Oyi, Nnewi North, Nnewi South, Aguata, Anambra East and Anambra West LGAs of the State. Such compromised registered voters are made to tender their cards for extraction of their polling unit pin numbers and other relevant code numbers. Some members of the public who do not have voters’ cards are also hunted and asked to bring their passport photos and other personal particulars such as residence address, age, gender, ancestral origin, phone numbers, e-mail addresses etc.
The latter is designed for the purpose of “creating” voters cards for them, with a promise by their inducers to sort out the INEC staff manning voters’ accreditation exercise on Election Day so as to allow them vote in off voter register manner. These criminal and morally reprehensible conducts by some desperate political parties and their candidates are incorporated in their so-called “house to house campaigns”. One of the political parties that commenced the said “house to house campaigns” in earliest time is the APC. The exercise was later embraced by other parties including Labour and APGA. Our firm position is that INEC should re-scrutinize its entire adhoc staff both senior and junior and flush out or ground those found to be injected by political parties or with selfish political interests.
The all-important Anambra governorship poll will be conducted in the 4,608 polling centers, 326 electoral wards, 21 LGAs and 3 Senatorial zones in the State. It is also our call that the Nigerian security agencies led by the Nigeria Police Force should brace up for the challenges posed by obvious desperation of some political parties and their candidates to be returned as the winner through acts of political gangsterism and brigandage.
Ominous signs are all over the place that except INEC and security agencies do and get it right without fear or favour, otherwise, Anambra will be set ablaze during or/and after the poll. The role of the media in the important poll is also very crucial. Sensational and sectional media reports of the poll conducts are as dangerous as security lapses and breaches during the poll. Such reports should be ignored by the poll conductors and security providers and not allowed to distract them or make them lose focus, which will give room for the alarmists and their paymasters to have a crooked edge over the collective electoral interest of the Anambra People. Other than these, credible media alarms and reports during the poll should be taken seriously and addressed promptly.
Finally, there are credible reports that our dear State of Anambra is flooded with Lorries of “dregs of the society” and quartered in various hotels and other hiding places for the d-day to come. Many of these “dregs” are “retreatists”, who are “forest or jungle warriors” that have “downed many heads” to their “bravely”. If allowed an iota of breathing space in the crucial poll, they will down more heads and drink their biological water with impunity. It is to the information of Nigerian security agencies that Lorries of these “clearers of road for the person (man) wey sabi” are very much around in town. And they should be confined to the “spectators’ corners” and not allowed into the playing ground so as to avert “downing heads” and emptying their killer “cashew nuts” into the ballot boxes for the purpose of producing Anambra’s next governor through “dead and non living votes”.
To this effect, all the 4,608 polling centers in the State especially in urban and river-line areas must be manually and forensically policed with clearly designated strategic “nipping points” and rapid respond squads. More than deployment of armoured personnel carriers in strategic exits and entries in the State, the RRS formations should be stationed very closed to every polling/collection center. Other than those rapid response squads to be placed for general stationing and patrolling of strategic outer places including roads and routes in the State, there is need to create and station about 1,600 special rapid response squads and put all the 4,608 polling centers and their collection centers under their competent care. This will be on average of one RRS for three polling centers/collection center. Each RRS should be made up of joint uniformed securitization personnel with their rapid response electronic and manual contacts made available to core stake holders in the poll.
Emeka Umeagbalasi, Chairman of the Board
International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law
Comrade Justus Ijeoma, Head, Publicity Desk
Photo Above: Map of Anambra State
*Anambra Governorship Election Campaigns & Related Issues
Anambra Governorship Election Campaigns& Related Issues: The Good, The Bad & The Ugly Introduction
(A Joint Statement, 5th of November, 2013)-The Southeast Group 8 Rights Coalition is a coalition of eight like-minded rights groups of the Igbo Southeast extraction with thematic focus on building and sustaining democracy, citizens’ rights, good governance and rule of law in Southeast Nigeria. It also fights for Igbo rights and interests in Nigeria including protection of top Igbo political and public service appointees at the Federal level provided they are not criminal appointees. It supports creative governance and fiscal prudency and opposes jamboree governance including huge public debt policy.
The G8 Rights Coalition does not support Igbo rights and interests that are repugnant to equity and fairness. This means that Igbo rights and interests should stop where those of other Nigerian nationalities begin. While the name Southeast G8 Rights Coalition remains, names of its participating groups are not steady. This method allows any group to opt out any time it chooses. It is also designed to ward off parochial interests and possible infiltration of the group by criminal politicians and their agents in Nigeria. The G8 Rights Coalition is coordinated by the secretariat of International Society for Civil Liberties& the Rule of Law in Onitsha, Southeast Nigeria.
Anambra Governorship Poll & Its Campaigns So Far:
Out of 23 participating political parties in the poll, only four are “primus inter pares”. They are Peoples Democratic Party (PDP), All Progressives Congress (APC), Labour Party (LB) and All Progressives Grand Alliance (APGA). The fifth visible party in the race is Peoples Progressive Party (PPA). The five governorship candidates of the parties under reference are: Mr. Tony Nwoye PDP, Mr. Chris Ngige APC, Mr. Ifeanyi Ubah LB, Mr. Willie Obiano APGA and Mr. Godwin Ezemo PPA. By global convention, issue based election campaigns are precursors of positive social change, decency and tranquility. Their collective outcome is free, popular and credible poll. Where these are patently lacking, insecurity and its perception holds sway. The result of this can lead to violence, low voter turnout and election rigging. Campaigns also include mounting of bill boards, pasting of posters and playing of jingles using audio-visual media, public sound system and traditional town criers.
Labour Party is so far leading other four main parties in terms of peaceful governorship campaigns. No strong evidence has been obtained linking it to destruction and defacing of its opponents’ bill boards and posters including those in its stronghold areas like Nnewi where its candidate comes from. Our checks in Nnewi areas indicate that most of the posters and bill boards of its opponents are left untouched. There are very few isolated cases in the area linked to the party, but they are not sufficient. The LB’s campaign jingles are also played on the Anambra Broadcasting Service belonging to the Government of Anambra State, which includes radio and television. The party has not been linked to any physical disruption of campaigns of other political parties in any part of Anambra State or planting of jeering crowds in any rallies or campaigns organized by other parties.
However, Labour Party is strongly accused of money and material inducement of members of the public especially the registered voters. Such material inducements include grading of some streets in the Ugwuagba area of Obosi in Idemmili North LGA of Anambra State and free distribution of premium motor spirit or fuel to selected members of the public. It was also accused of involvement in the purchase of voters’ cards especially in the river line areas of the State where the poverty level still very high. Each voter’s card is reportedly sold for N5, 000. The party was mentioned as being involved in the importation of people from outside the State during the continuous voters exercise that took place two months ago with a view to mass-registering them as voters.
The All Progressives Grand Alliance comes second in the rating as in peaceful poll campaigns. But the party, which is the State ruling party, is accused of using its apparatus to remove and destroy dozens of the bill boards belonging to the All Progressives Congress and its governorship candidate, Mr. Chris Ngige. The APC, on its part, was found to have embarked on indiscriminate and combative erection of its bill boards including in places not environmentally fit to erect such bill boards. Other APC’s bill boards are said to have been erected against the procedures prescribed by the State House of Assembly. For the fact that the State Government was hash in its handling of the APC’s bill boards’ removal at the threshold of the campaigns, denies it the status of the “most peaceful election campaigner” in the Anambra State governorship poll, which has gone to the Labour Party. There are also pieces of evidence that in some places where the APC posters and bills are removed, those of APGA and its candidate are pasted or hung.
The Peoples Democratic Party comes third in the rating. This is largely because of the candidacy tussle, which was ended yesterday at the Nigeria’s Apex Court, which reaffirmed the candidacy of Mr. Tony Nwoye. Now that the Supreme Court of Nigeria has reaffirmed Mr. Tony Nwoye’s candidacy, our searchlight will be beamed on his party’s style of campaign in the remaining ten days.
The PPA comes fourth in the rating. Its campaigns so far have not breached the universal standards for election campaigns. It has so far conducted itself in a very civilized manner. The post of “most violent and trouble-mongering Anambra governorship poll campaigner” goes to the All Progressives Congress and its candidate. The party has been strongly accused of “importation of jeering and booing crowds” into the campaign rallies organized by its main opponents for the purposes of disrupting them. The party’s main target is the All Progressives Grand Alliance, which it considers as its main threat and challenger.
For instance, at the recent rally of the latter at the Onitsha Main Market, a “booing crowd” was reportedly planted. Complaints of disruption of church services by the APC have also been reported in different parts of the State. From Amichi to Mbakwu Communities; from Onitsha Prisons to the Immaculate Catholic Church in Onitsha; and from Awka to St. Gregory Catholic Church, Iyiowa in Ogbaru LGA of Anambra State. By Christian convention, late comers in any church service, are seen as recipients of “half blessings” and kept outside the church halls until the end of general sermons.
They are called “bad church attendants or church goers”. Good church attendants are those who get seated before the commencement of church services. They receive “full blessings” from the beginning to end. From our in-depth investigations, it is not that Mr. Chris Ngige and his supporters deliberately storm church services and disrupt same, but they have made themselves deliberate late comers, which disrupt church services anywhere they go by making the seated church attendants and presiding priests and bishops to be distracted. In such occasions, the church halls are flooded with brooms and posters while church services are in progress.
While other political parties and their candidates attend church services with few aides and sizeable supporters and get seated usually before the commencement of services, the APC is in the habit of large recruited crowd movement. Some, if not many members of the crowd are the “dregs of the society” with common trait of unruly behaviors. They are used to mount bill boards, paste posters, destroy and deface bill boards and posters of their main opponents and infiltrate the camps of their main opponents as “booing and jeering crowd” and false alarmists. The recent fatal stampede at the Uke Adoration prayer ground that took the lives of 28 people is a clear case in point. The false alarmists had planned to cause the stampede earlier in the late night of Friday, November 1st, 2013 when a false alarm of sudden snake appearance in the arena was deliberately raised the planted crowd to cause unquenchable commotion.
Our investigation into rampant destruction of bill boards and defacing of posters also indicted the APC and its candidate. This is most likely to be revenge over the State Government’s ordered dismantling of campaign bill boards deemed environmentally “ugly”, which substantially affected those of the APC. Apart from interviewing some residents and traders in the areas where such destroyed bill boards and defaced posters of the APGA and its candidate are located, our field investigators sighted some APC supporters yesterday, being 4th of November, 2013 in Onitsha, Awada, Nkpor and Ogbaru areas. The supporters while pasting their party and its candidate’s posters engaged in malicious and reckless defacing and removal of other posters especially those of APGA.
While the supporters of other parties leave their opponents’ posters untouched and paste theirs in other blank spaces, the APC supporters, seemingly working on instructions, remove and deface those of other parties especially APGA before pasting their own. Our several visits to Nnewi (stronghold of LB), Idemmili North & South (stronghold of APC), Aguata (stronghold of PPA), Anaocha LGA and Omambala zone (strongholds of APGA and PDP), showed that most of the bill boards and posters of the opponents of the domiciled political parties and their candidates are left untouched except in Idemmili North and South LGAs where many bill boards and posters of the APGA and its candidate are either defaced or destroyed. The despicable conduct of the APC, which is strongly being fingered, has also been imported into Awka with a number of the APGA posters defaced or destroyed.
APC is strongly accused further of commissioning some people including women to trace many registered voters to their residencies and market places, using the recently released copies of the final voters’ list Such voters are induced to tender their voters’ cards whereupon the polling unit and other code numbers are copied in exchange for cash gifts. Others are recruited into certain committees and made to give up their voters’ cards or their pin numbers and ordinary passport photographs.
They are said to be paid “one month salary” of up to N15, 000 and given other cash sums and indoctrinated on how to recruit others. These categories of people are tagged “special agents”. This despicable and criminal exercise has been widely reported especially in Awada, Okpoko and Ogbaru areas of the State. Similar patterns may have been applied to hoodwink voters in other parts of the State. This may most likely be a new innovation in election rigging industry, which may be called “forensic poll rigging software”.
Issue Based Campaigns:
Most of the participating political parties in the Anambra Governorship race are far from engaging in issue based campaigns. Rather than convincing the voters by showing them the masterful ways they intend to transform the State if elected, most of the parties and their candidates resort to guerrilla warfare by peddling lies and falsehoods using the instrument of sectionalized media. Some contestants are not even aware of the existence of Exclusive, Concurrent and Residual Legislative Lists of the Federation that divide items of governance jurisdictions among the three tiers of Federal, States and LGAs. Some have promised to do things that are purely outside their jurisdiction like building cargo “international” airport, providing steady power supply, building seaport, etc. Others have promised “free medical services”, “free secondary and university education” and “constant increment in workers’ salaries”.
All these lofty promises are not accompanied with forensic disclosures as per the effective sources of resources mobilization with which to implement the lofty programs. The silence of these candidates and their parties, other than APGA, on how monies will be sourced without mortgaging the future well being of the State by reckless loan borrowings and over-bloated governance including jumbo security votes, clearly shows that the low debt records of Anambra State is a gold mine for these contestants. In other words, their sole hope is returning the State to the status of “a highly indebted State”. Lagos State presently owes a total debt of N330Billion locally and internationally. Campaigns deceits such as the foregoing are called “psychology of politics” or “confusion of many for the parochial interest of the few”.
Lastly, we have also observed that Anambra State is being invaded by some strange faces including social miscreants and recidivists hired by desperate politicians and their parties from neighboring States of Delta, Imo and Enugu. All these are to step up criminal activities of various forms and shapes including politically oiled abductions, real, perceived and false armed robberies and other street criminal activities like youth militancy and pick-pockets.etc.
Extensive intelligence information gathering and other preventive policing measures should be put in place by the present Government of Anambra State and its security agencies to ward off these precursors of anarchy threatening to mar the popularity and credibility of the all-important governorship poll. The collective security of Anambra State of Nigeria must not be compromised and any political party or candidate found fanning the embers of violence must have its wings clipped within the law.
From the forgoing, therefore, the Anambra Governorship Poll campaigns are facing several challenges, which must be nipped in the bud and disallowed from resulting into uncontrollable social disorders capable of robbing the crucial poll of popular participation and credibility. We wish to use this medium to congratulate the Labour Party for emerging the “most peaceful Anambra Governorship Poll campaigner” so far. The winner and the runners up like APGA, PDP and PPA are urged to refuse to be provoked by their opponents and embrace peaceful campaigns premised on issue based electoral campaign messages.
For: Southeast Group 8 Rights Coalition:
1. Emeka Umeagbalasi: International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law
2. Aloysius Emeka Attah: Civil Liberties Organization, Anambra State Branch
3. Justus Uche Ijeoma: Society Watch (a membership project of Intersociety-Nigeria)
4. Peter Onyegiri: Center for Human Rights & Peace Advocacy
5. Samuel Njoku: Human Rights Club, Anambra State Branch
6. Alexander Olisa: Forum for Justice, Equity & Human Rights
7. Anthony Emeka Itanyi: Southeast Emancipation Network
8. Onyeozielu Ujunwa: Committee Against Political Crimes in Nigeria
Photo Above: Map of Anambra State
*Intersociety Fights For Igbo Cause & Good Governance In Nigeria - Part 3
Intersociety, Igbo Cause & Good Governance In Nigeria: An In-depth Look Into The APC’s Epicenter(Central Point) Of Political Governance & Its Huge Debts In Nigeria
(Public Information, 1st of November, 2013)- This is the continuation of our public information, which was first issued on 20th of October, 2013 and titled: “Intersociety Fights For Igbo Cause & Good Governance In Nigeria: APC’s Attacks On Our Leadership Another War Against Igbo Gods & A Boarding Pass Off Anambra 2013(part one)”. On 23rd of October, 2013, the second part was issued and it was titled: “Separating Igbo Cause, Democracy & Good Governance In Nigeria (Egalitarian Partisanship) From Pecuniary Politicking (Libertarian Partisanship): Putting The Records Straight”. The issuance of the Public Information under reference is in response to coordinated attacks launched against us from several angles by the All Progressives Congress using its key members, branches, malicious elements in the media and some conformists in the rights community.
We wish to reassure our teeming followers and supporters all over the world that the leadership of International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law is equal to these challenges and unprovoked attacks. It is also our assurance that we will ensure at all times that our armpits are not hairy in order to be competently positioned to set and defend parameters of modern rights activism, good governance and accountability in public governance anywhere in Nigeria and its beyond.
It is sad that many Nigerian NGOs are still peopled and led by military confrontationists who still live in the past. These sets of NGOs’ leaders are not different from “BBC(born before computer) academicians” that are killing the Nigerian higher education because of their insistence on keeping the country’s higher education on “typewriter” path, or the present Nigeria Police Force that still promotes “homicidal policing” in place of modern “electronic and preventive policing”.
Focus On APC’s Epicenter Of Political Governance In Nigeria:
Lagos State is the epicenter of the APC’s political governance in Nigeria. APC’s forefather is the Action Group of the 40s. The AG later begat UPN (Unity Party of Nigeria) in the late 70s, which gave birth to AD (Alliance for Democracy) in late 90s. Though AD claims that it still exists till date, but its bones are off leaving it boneless. The mainstream AD begat AC/N (Action Congress; plus “of Nigeria”) in the 2000s and this led to the recent birth of the All Progressives Congress.
Like its forefather, AG, the APC is southwest and northern Muslims’ dominated. Its leadership is presently dominated by its politicians of the Southwest orientation. Lagos has served as the epicenter of “opposition politics” in Nigeria since 1999. The Southwest “opposition politics” collapsed in 2003 and resurfaced in 2007 and 2008. The collapse was owing to the emergence of Chief Olusegun Obasanjo as a second term President in 2003. It was then calculated that since Chief Olusengun Obasanjo came from the Southwest, continuing an opposition politics might rob the zone of “its national cake” and mainstream political inroad into the center.
Lagos is Nigeria’s most populated State with over 15 million residents and has 20 constitutionally recognized LGAs. The State is one of the smallest in terms of land mass, measuring 3,577 square kilometers, out of which 787 is occupied by lagoons and creeks. It is also Nigeria’s richest State in terms of internally generated revenues hitting between N288Billion and N348Billion yearly. Its 2013 budget is N499.105Billion with a capital expenditure of N269, 376Billion and recurrent of N229.777Billion. The State has a monthly wage bill of under N7Billion and has served as the capital of Nigeria between 1861 when its illiterate Oba Desomu ceded it and by extension, other “Niger Area” social entities to the British colonialists through the “Treaty of Cession”, and December 1991 when Nigeria’s capital was moved to Abuja. Lagos has lesser land mass than Anambra, which measures 4, 416 square kilometers. Kano is more than two and a half larger than Lagos, measuring 9,398 square kilometers of land mass.
Lagos Huge Foreign & Domestic Debts Of N330Billion:
Recently, Lagos State was in the news in a section of the Nigerian media as the “most indebted State” in Nigeria. Having successfully silenced larger section of the Nigerian media and many of the rights groups particularly those headquartered in the State, pens, voices and tongues were turned in glorification of its attainment of “this wonderful feat” by becoming “Nigeria’s most sustainable loans’ borrower”. The Lagos media and silenced rights groups joined in the “celebration” by making repeatedly a reference by the DMO (Debts Management Office)’s DG to the effect that “owing to Lagos fat revenues accruals”, its loans are “sustainable”. By implication, it has been licensed to borrow with utmost alacrity. Questions such as: “since Lagos is a sustainable or maintenance governance economy with huge revenues’ receipts, why the huge borrowings and for what purposes?” are kept in the cooler.
According to the official releases from the Nigeria’s Debt Management Office, Lagos State is the most indebted State in Nigeria both domestically and externally, with N193Billon (Dr. Abraham Nwankwo, DG-DMO: 2013) as at September 2013 and $857.53Million ( about N137Billion as at June 2013). The State’s total domestic debt as at December 2011 was N157.53Billion. In other words, Lagos State presently owes total local and foreign debts of N330Billion or about $2.07Billion. The Nigerian Senate recently approved another $200Million (N32Billion) for the State to be borrowed from the World Bank in the incoming 2014 fiscal year. The total loan approved for the State by the World Bank in the 2010 Borrowing Plan is $600Million, out of which, first tranche was secured in 2011. With this, Lagos debts by 2014 fiscal year will be N362Billion or about $2.25Billion.
States’ Local & Foreign Debts By Geopolitical Zones:
In the area of geopolitical zone, South-south is the most indebted zone in terms of domestic debt with a total of N508, 692Billion, followed by Southwest with N305.9Billion. The North-central zone and the FCT is the third most indebted zone in Nigeria in terms of local debt with N214.7Billion, followed by Southeast with N107.1Billion. The Northeast zone is the fifth most indebted zone with N72.7Billion and the least indebted zone is the Northwest with N69.8Billion. In the area of foreign debts, Southwest zone is the most indebted with $1,18Billion, followed by Northwest with $540Million. Nigeria’s third most indebted zone in foreign loans is South-south zone with $302.2Million, followed by the North-central and the FCT with $230.6Million. The Southeast zone comes fifth with $217.1Million, while the Northeast is the least most indebted zone in terms of foreign loans with $198.6Million.
15 Most Indebted States:
The fifteen most indebted States in Nigeria both domestically and externally for 2013 are: Lagos N330Billion, Bayelsa N167Billion, Cross River N107Billion, Delta 93Billion, the FCT N91Billion, Rivers N89Billion, Kaduna N75Billion, Ondo 56Billion, Akwa Ibom N50Billion, Ogun N47Billion, Ebonyi N46Billion, Edo N45Billion, Kogi N39Billion, Imo N34Billion and Adamawa N30Billion. Anambra State is one of the least indebted States in Nigeria with a total debt of N10.7Billion, which is made up of a local debt of N6.4Billion and a foreign debt of $27.3Million or about N4.27Billion. The source of the foregoing debts and their statistical breakdown was obtained from the official website of the Debt Management Office of the Federation. While the available DMO information concerning foreign debts is updated to June 2013 that of domestic debts is of December 2011. This clearly shows that the States’ official domestic debts records are most likely to be under-reported.
States’ Domestic Debts Statistics May Be Inaccurate:
While the local debt statistics of Lagos both domestic and foreign, looks officially updated because of a recent statement credited to the DG of the DMO by the media to the effect that “Lagos internal debt as at September 2013 stood at N193Billion”. A further enquiry by the leadership of Intersociety reveals that the States’ internal debts records obtained and used by the DMO may not have represented accurately what most of the States actually owe domestically. The DMO had in 2012 reported that it was having hitches compiling the States’ local debts. Pieces of information supplied to the DMO statisticians by some, if not many States, may have been half-baked especially when some States like Lagos and Imo are said to have reached “debt ceiling”. Yet the DMO official records still put Imo’s domestic and foreign debts to “N25.4Billion” and “$51.2Million” respectively. It appears that some, if not many States particularly those engrossed in huge domestic debts, are hiding the truth as regards their actual domestic loans figures.
Part Four In Making:
In part four of the subject under reference, we shall x-ray the APC and its policy of “loan governance in Nigeria” with Lagos State as a case study. We shall soon return to regional and international levels to take a stock of dictators and tyrants still holding sway in public offices in their respective countries, who continue to bring calamities and hardships to their peoples by their sit-tight.
Bottling APC Flies & Their Ranting:
Lastly, we are not unaware of “flies” hired by our detractors to come and implant hairs in our armpits with a view to blackening us and dampening our spirits locally, nationally, regionally and internationally. We shall bottle them together with their empty noises and put them to shames as we have done to several others in recent past. We urge our teeming followers and supporters not to be distracted one bit. Anambra Governorship poll will come and go and we shall remain. Once the wind of the important poll settles our jungle and paid attackers and other jungle rights activists running riot on us will roost and wait for another poll year.
Refusing To Be Distracted & Matching On:
Just two days ago, our gallant field officers led by Comrades Justus Ijeoma and Alex Ijeoma freed 42 residents of Iyiowa Odekpe in Ogbaru LGA of Anambra State, who were mass-arrested by a unit of deadly Anambra NPF’s SARS (Special Anti Robbery Squad) in their various residences and streets between 7:30pm and 8:20pm on 29th October, 2013. Among them were pregnant women, husbands and wives. On prompt intervention of our crack team the next morning, all of them were freed and two of them who have paid N10, 000 each as “bail fees” before the arrival of our crack team were refunded after the extorted sums were recovered from the SARS extortionists. The SARS guys later apologized to our crack team with a bottle of “Henkel Wine” and begged us to offer prayers for them with it. Some of the arrested citizens were tortured with gun buts and other lethal objects.
Emeka Umeagbalasi, Chairman of the Board
International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law
Comrade Justus Ijeoma, Head, Publicity Desk
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